Mapa de Dobruja

Dobruja, o en ocasiones Dobrudja, Dobrucha, Dobrogea o Dobrojea (en rumano, Dobrogea, en búlgaro, Добруджа - Dobrudzha, en turco, Dobruca), es el territorio localizado entre el curso bajo del río Danubio y el mar Negro, incluido el delta del Danubio, la costa de Rumania y la zona más septentrional de la costa búlgara del mar Negro. Se divide en Dobruja Septentrional (Dobrogea), que pertenece a Rumania, y Dobruja Meridional (en rumano, Cadrilater), que pertenece a Bulgaria.

Índice

HistoriaEditar

 
Ruinas de la primera colonia griega en la región, supuestamente procede de los Istros.

Durante los inicios de la Edad de Hierro (8vo–6toa. de C.), se incrementa la diferenciación de los Godos, las tribus locales de los pobladores tracios. En la segunda parte del Siglo VIII a. de C., los primeros signos de intercambios comerciales entre las poblaciones locales y los griegos aparecen en las costas del Golfo de Halmyris (conocido ahora como el lago Sinoe).

En el 657/656 a. de C. Colonos griegos de Mileto fundaron una colonia en la región de Histria.[1]​ Entre el 7mo y el 6to siglo a. de C., más colonias fueron fundadas en las costas de Dobruja: Callatis, Tomis, Mesembria, Dionisiópolis, Parthenopolis, Aphrodisias, Eumenia, entre otras. En el 5tosiglo a. de C., esas colonias quedaron bajo la influencia de la Liga de Delos, pasándose en éste periodo de la oligarquía a la democracia.[2]​ En el 6° siglo a. de C., los primeros grupos de escitas comienzan a llegar a la región. Dos tribus Getas, los Crobyzi y los Terizi, además de la villa de Orgame (Argamum) son mencionadas en el territorio de la actual Dobruja por Hekataios de Mileto (540–470 BC).[3]

En el 514/512 a. de C., el rey Dario I de Persia somete a los Getas que habitaban la región durante su expedición contra los Escitas que vivían al norte del Danubio.[4]​ Más o menos en el 430 a. de C., el Reino odrisio bajo Sitalces extiende su dominio al delta del Danubio.[5]​ En el 429 a. de C., los Getas provenientes de la región participaron en una campaña odrisiana en las batallas en Macedonia.[6]​ En el 4to siglo a. de C., los escitas dominaron la actual Dobruja bajo su reinado. Entre 341–339 a. de C., uno de sus reyes, Ateas, luchó en contra de Histria, quienes eran supuestamente gobernados por un Histrianorum rex (probablemente un gobernador local, de origen Geta). En el 339 a. de C., el rey Ateas sería derrotado por el rey macedonio Filipo II, quien tras la lucha extendería su dominio sobre Dobruja.[7]

 
Antiguos poblados y colonias de los griegos en Escitia Menor.

En el 313 a. de C. y nuevamente entre 310–309 a. de C., las colonias griegas lideradas por Callatis, y apoyadas por Antigono I Monoftalmos, se rebelaron contra el mandato macedonio. Las revueltas fueron suprimidas por el Diádoco Lisímaco, el gobernador de Tracia, quien también iniciaría una expedición militar punitiva contra Dromicetes,el gobernante de la parte norte en manos de los Getas del Danubio, en el año 300. En el siglo 3er a. de C., las colonias en en la costa de Dobruja pagaban tributo a los basilei Zalmodegikos y Moskon, quienes probablemente gobernaban también en la zona norte de Dobruja. En el mismo siglo, los Celtas se asentaron al norte de la región. En el 260 a. de C., Bizancio, junto a Callatis e Histria, perderían la guerra por el control de Tomis. A fines del siglo 3 de C. y principios del siglo2doa. de C., los Bastarnos se asentaron en el área del delta del Danubio. Cerca del 200 a. de C., el rey tracio Zoltes invadió ésta provincia en repetidas ocasiones, pero sería derrotado por Rhemaxos, quien se convertiría en el protector de las colonias griegas.

Los primeros estudiosos griegos, como Heródoto, recuerdan a dicha región cómo la extensión sur-oriental de Escitia –una práctica que también se hallaría en una inscripción datada en el siglo 2doa. de C.- donde se recuerda un decreto hecho en Histria, en el que se refieren a las regiones circundantes de la ciudad griega como "Escitia". Sin embargo, el topónimo Μικρά Σκυθία Mikrá Skythia, usualmente se traduce como Escitia Menor o Baja Escitia, lo que sería luego la usanza para referirse a la región que se conocería con posterioridad como Dobruja. El más temprano uso del término "Scythia Minor" (Mikrá Skythia) se puede hallar hasta los escritos de Estrabón en su primeriza Geografía (1ersiglo de nuestra era). Los griegos aparentemente distinguían así a la región de la de "Escitia Mayor" (Scythia Major), la cual ellos situaban al norte del delta del Danúbio.

Cerca al año 100 a. de C. el rey Mitrídates VI del Pontus extiende su autoridad sobre las ciudades griegas en Dobruja. Pero, entre los años 72–71 a. de C., durante la tercer guerra, dichas ciudades fueron ocupadas por las fuerzas de Marco Terencio Varro Lúculo, el procónsul romano de Macedonia. Se firmaría con posterioridad un foedus entre las colonias griegas y el imperio, pero entre 62–61 a. de C., las colonias desataron una crisis.[cita requerida] Gayo Antonio Híbrida interviene en dicha crísis, pero es derrotado por los Getas y Bastarnos cerca de Histria. A fines del 55 a. de C., los Dacios bajo el mando del rey Burebista conquistan las demás colonias griegas de la costa de Dobruja. Su mandato terminaría en el 44 a. de C.[cita requerida]

Mandato del Imperio romanoEditar

 
El monumento de Tropaeum Traiani en Adamclisi, con el que se conmemora la victoria romana sobre los Dacios (Reconstrucción moderna).

Entre los años 28/29 BC Rolescio, un gobernante gético del sur de Dobruja, apoyó al procónsul de Macedonia, Marco Licinio Craso, y por sus acciones en contra de los Bastarnos, fue declarado Amigo y aliado del pueblo Romano por Octaviano.[8]​ Rholes ayudó a Craso en la conquista de los estados de Dapyx (en Dobruja central) y Zyraxes (al norte).[9]​ Dobruja se hizo parte como reino cliente de los Odrisianos, mientras que las ciudades griegas en la costa se tomaron como dominio directo del gobernador de Macedonia. Entre los años 12 D. de C. y 15 D. de C., los ejércitos Géticos salieron exitosos en la toma de las ciudades de Aegyssus y Troesmis pero por corto tiempo, tras lo que el rey Odrisiano Rometalces I les derrotó con la ayuda del ejército imperial de Roma.

En el 15 D. de C., la provincia romana de Moesia fue creada, pero la actual Dobruja, bajo el nombre de Ripa Thraciae permaneció como parte del reino odrisiano. Las polis griegas de la costa formaron parte de la praefectura orae maritimae. En el 46 D. de C., Tracia se convirtió en una provincia de Roma, ylos actuales territorios de Dobruja fueron absorbidos en la provincia de Moesia. Los geto-dacios invadieron dicha región un sinfín de oportunidades en el 1ersiglo D. de C., entre los años 62 y 70. En el mismo periodo, la base de la flota del Danúbio romana (classis Flavia Moesica) sería trasladada a Noviodunum. La praefectura fue entonces anexionada a Moesia en 86 D. de C. En el mismo año, Domiciano dividió Moesia, y Dobruja quedó incluida en la parte este, denominada como Moesia Inferior.

En el invierno de los años 101–102, el rey de los Dacios Decébalo lidera una coalición de Dacios, Carpos, Sármatas y Burios en un ataque contra Moesia Inferior. Las tropas invasoras fueron derrotadas por las legiones romanas del Emperador Trajano en el río Yantra. (Posteriormente Nicopolis ad Istrum fue fundada allí para conmemorar dicha victoria.) Los invasores a su vez fueron también vencidos en las cercanías del actual pueblo de Adamclisi, en la parte sur de Dobruja. La posterior victoria sería conmemorada por el Tropaeum Traiani, construido en 109 en el mismo sitio, además de la fundación de la ciudad de Tropaeum. Después de 105, las legiones Legio XI Claudia y Legio V Macedonica fueron trasladadas a Dobruja, e instaladas en Durostorum y Troesmis, respectivamente.

En al año 118 Adriano intervino en la región para apaciguar una rebelión provocada por los Sármatas. En 170 , los Costobocios invaden Dobruja, atacando Libida, Ulmetum y Tropaeum. La provincia fue generalmente considerada como estable y próspera hasta la crísis premedieval,que le advino al imperio un serio debilitamiento de sus fuertes, además de sucederse numerosas invasiones bárbaras. En el 248, una coalición de Godos, Carpos, Taifalos, Bastarnos y Asdingos, liderada por Argáito y Guntérico, devastaron Dobruja.[10]​ Durante el mandato de Decio Trajano, la provincia sufrió graves pérdidas por los ataques de los Godos bajo el mando del rey Cniva.[11]​ Los ataques bárbaros se siguieron en los años 258, 263 y 267. En el año 269 una flota aliada de Godos, Hérulos, Bastarnos y Sármatas atacaron las ciudades de la costa, incluida Tomis.[12]​ En el año 272 Aureliano derrotó a los Carpos al norte de Danúbio y asentó a una parte de éstos cerca de Carsium. Éste mismo emperador puso fin a la crisis del Imperio de Roma, tras lo que ayudó a la reconstrucción de las provincias devastadas tras dichas contiendas.

Durante el mandato de Diocleciano, Dobruja fue organizada administrativamente como una provincia separada, designada como Scythia, parte de la Diócesis de Tracia. Como su capital fue designada Tomis. Diocleciano transfirió a la Legio II Herculia a Troesmis y a la Legio I Iovia a Noviodunum. Entre los años 331 y 332 Constantino derrotó a los Godos, quienes atacaron la provincia. Pero Dobruja sería devastada nuevamente por los Ostrogodos entre 384 y 386. Bajo los emperadores romanos Licinio, Juliano el Apóstata, y Valente, las ciudades de la región fueron reparadas y/o reconstruidas.

Mandato bizantinoEditar

Tras la división del Imperio romano, Dobruja quedó incorporada al Imperio romano de oriente. Entre 513 y 520, la región participó en las revueltas contra Anastasio I. Su líder, Vitaliano, nativo de Zaldapa en el sur de Dobruja, derrotó al general bizantino Hipatio cerca a Kaliakra. Durante el mandato de Justino I, los Antes y Eslavos invadieron la región, pero Germano Justiniano les derrotó. En el año 529, el comandante gépido Mundo repelió una nueva invasión de los Búlgaros y los Antes. Los Kutrigures y Avaros invadieron la región en varias ocasiones, hasta 561–562, cuando los Ávaros bajo el mando de Bayan I se asentaron al sur del Danubio como foederati. Durante el mandato de Mauricio Tiberio, los eslavos devastaron Dobruja, destruyendo las ciudades de Dorostolon, Zaldapa y Tropaeum. Entre los años 591-593, el general bizantino Prisco trató en vano de detener las invasiones, atacando y derrotando a los eslavos bajo el mando de Ardagast al norte de la provincia. En el año 602 durante los motines del ejército de Bizancio en los Balcanes bajo el liderato de Focas, una larga masa de Eslavos cruzaron el Danubio, asentándose al sur del mismo. Dobruja se mantuvo posteriormente bajo un muy débil dominio bizantino, y luego sería reorganizada durante el reinado de Constantino IV como la Thema Scythia.[13]

Primer Imperio Búlgaro y el mandatoEditar

 
Monumento a Asparukh, el fundador del primer estado búlgaro, en Dobrich; Dobruja era parte de la conquista de Asparukh en el siglo 7mo.

The results of archaeological researches indicate that the Byzantine presence in Dobruja's mainland and on the banks of Danube was reduced in the end of the 6th century, under the pressure of the Migration Period. In the coastal fortifications on the southern bank of Danube, the latest Byzantine coin found dates from the time of the emperors Tiberius II Constantine (574–582) and Heraclius (610–641). After that period, all inland Byzantine cities were demolished by the invaders and abandoned.[14]

Some of the earliest Slavic settlements to the south of Danube have been discovered in Dobruja, near the villages of Popina, Garvăn and Nova Cherna. They have been dated to the end of the 6th and the beginning of the 7th centuries.[15]​ These lands became the main zone of compact Bulgar settlement in the end of the 7th century.[16]

According to the peace treaty of 681, signed after the Bulgarian victory over Byzantines in the Battle of Ongala, Dobruja became part of the First Bulgarian Empire.[17]​ Shortly after, the Bulgar founded the city of Pliska, which became the first Bulgarian capital, near the southern border of Dobruja.[18]​ They rebuilt Madara as a major Bulgar pagan religious centre.[19]​ According to the Bulgarian Apocryphal Chronicle, from the 11th century, Bulgarian Tsar Ispor "accepted the Bulgarian tsardom", created "great cities, Drastar on the Danube", a "great wall from Danube to the sea", "the city of Pliska" and "populated the lands of Karvuna".[20]

According to Bulgarian historians, during the 7th–10th centuries, the region was fortified by construction of a large network of earthen and wooden strongholds and ramparts.[21]​ Around the end of the 8th century, widespread building of new stone fortresses and defensive walls began.[22]​ Romanian historians dispute attributing these walls to the Bulgarians, based on their interpretation of the construction system and archaeological evidence.[cita requerida] The Bulgarians also reconstructed some of the ruined Byzantine fortresses (Kaliakra and Silistra in the 8th century, Madara and Varna in the 9th).[23]​ According to Barnea, among other historians, during the following three centuries of Bulgarian domination, Byzantines still controlled the Black Sea coast and the mouths of Danube, and for short periods, even some cities.[24]​ But Bulgarian archaeologists note that the last Byzantine coins found, which are considered a proof of Byzantine presence, date in Kaliakra from the time of Emperor Justin II (565–578),[25]​ in Varna from the time of Emperor Heraclius (610–641),[26]​ and in Tomis from Constantine IV's rule (668–685).[27]

At the beginning of the 8th century, Justinian II visited Dobruja to ask Bulgarian Khan Tervel for military help. Khan Omurtag (815–831) built a "glorious home on Danube" and erected a mound in the middle of the distance between Pliska and his new building, according to his inscription kept in SS. Forty Martyrs Church in Veliko Tarnovo. The location of this edifice is unclear; the main theories place it at Silistra or at Păcuiul lui Soare.[28]​ Many early medieval Bulgar stone inscriptions were found in Dobruja, including historical narratives, inventories of armament or buildings, and commemorative texts.[29]​ During this period Silistra became an important Bulgarian ecclesiastical centre—an episcopate after 865 and seat of the Bulgarian Patriarch at the end of the 10th century.[30]​ In 895, Magyar tribes from Budjak invaded Dobruja and northeastern Bulgaria. An old Slavic inscription, found at Mircea Vodă, mentions Zhupan Dimitri (Дѣимитрѣ жѹпанѣ), a local feudal landlord prominent in the south of the region in 943.[31]

Retorno al mandato Bizantino, migraciones posteriores, Segundo Imperio Búlgaro y dominación de los mongolesEditar

With financial encouragement from the Byzantine emperor, Nikephoros II Phocas, Sviatoslav I of Kiev agreed to assist the Byzantines in their war with the Bulgarians. Sviatoslav defeated the Bulgarians (led by Boris II) and proceeded to occupy the whole of northern Bulgaria. He occupied Dobruja in 968 and moved the capital of Kievan Rus' to Pereyaslavets, in the north of the region. Sviatoslav refused to turn his Balkan conquests over to the Byzantines, and the parties fell out as a result. So the Byzantines under John I Tzimisces reconquered Dobruja in 971 and included it in the theme 'Mesopotamia of the West' (Μεσοποταμια της Δυσεον).[32]

According to some historians, soon after 976[33]​ or in 986, the southern part of Dobruja was included in the Bulgarian state then ruled by Samuil. The northern part remained under Byzantine rule, being reorganised in an autonomous klimata.[34][35]​ Other historians are of the view that Northern Dobruja was reconquered by Bulgarians as well.[36]​ In 1000, a Byzantine army commanded by Theodorokanos reconquered the whole of Dobruja,[37]​ organizing the region as the Strategia of Dorostolon and, after 1020, as Paristrion (Paradounavon).

To prevent mounted attacks from the north, the Byzantines constructed three ramparts from the Black Sea down to the Danube, in the 10th–11th centuries.[38][39]​ According to Bulgarian archaeologists and historians, these fortifications may have been built much earlier and were erected by the First Bulgarian Empire in response to the threat of Khazars' raids.[40][41]

From the 10th century, Byzantines accepted small groups of Pechenegs settling in Dobruja.[42]​ In the spring of 1036, an invasion of the Pecheneg devastated large parts of the region,[43]​ destroying the forts at Capidava and Dervent, and burning the settlement of Dinogeţia. In 1046 the Byzantines accepted the Pecheneg under Kegen settling in Paristrion as foederati.[44]​ The Pecheneg dominated the region until 1059, when Isaac I Komnenos reconquered Dobruja.

In 1064, an invasion by the Oghuz Turks affected the region. During 1072 to 1074, when Nestor (the new strategos of Paristrion) was in Dristra, he found that the Pecheneg ruler, Tatrys, was leading a rebellion. In 1091, three autonomous, probably Pecheneg,[45]​ rulers were mentioned in the Alexiad: Tatos (Τατοῦ) or Chalis (χαλῆ), in the area of Dristra (probably the same person as Tatrys),[46]​ and Sesthlav (Σεσθλάβου) and Satza (Σατζά) in the area of Vicina.[47]

 
Bulgaria in the second half of the 13th century. The red points show the range of the Ivailo Uprising.

The Cumans moved into Dobruja in 1094 and were influential in the region until the advent of the Ottoman Empire.[48]​ In 1187 the Byzantines lost control of Dobruja to the restored Bulgarian Empire. In 1241, the first Tatar groups, under Kadan, invaded Dobruja starting a century long history of turmoil in the region.[49]​ Around 1263–64, Byzantine Emperor Michael VIII Palaeologus gave permission to Sultan Kaykaus II to settle in the area with a group of Seljuk Turks from Anatolia.[50]​ A missionary Turkish mystic, Sarı Saltuk, was the spiritual leader of this group.[51]​ His tomb in Babadag (which was named after him)[52]​ is still a place of pilgrimage for Muslims.[53]​ Arab chronicles of the 13th century mentioned Dobrogea under the name “Şakji” and the Vlachs inhabitants under the names “al-Awalak” and “ulaqut”[54]​ In 1265, the Bulgarian Emperor Constantine Tikh Asen hired 20,000 Tatars to cross the Danube and attack Byzantine Thrace.[55][56]​ On their way back, the Tatars forced most of the Seljuk Turks, including their chief Sarı Saltuk, to resettle in Kipchak (Cumania).[57][58]

In the second part of the 13th century, the Turkic–Mongolian Golden Horde Empire continuously raided and plundered Dobruja.[59]​ The inability of the Bulgarian authorities to cope with the numerous raids became the main reason for the uprising, led by Ivailo (1277–1280), that broke out in eastern Bulgaria.[60]​ Ivailo's army defeated the Tatars, who were forced to leave the Bulgarian territory; he next outed Constantine Tikh's army, and Ivailo was crowned Emperor of Bulgaria.

The war with the Tatars continued. In 1278, after a new Tatar invasion in Dobruja, Ivailo was forced to retreat to the strong fortress of Silistra, where he withstood a three-month siege.[61]​ In 1280 the Bulgarian nobility, which feared the growing influence of the peasant emperor, organised a coup. Ivailo had to flee to his enemy the Tatar Nogai Khan, who later killed him.[62]​ In 1300 Toqta, the new Khan of the Golden Horde, ceded Bessarabia to Emperor Theodore Svetoslav.[63]

Dobruja autónomaEditar

 
La fortaleza o palacio de Kaliakra, la sede de Principado autónomo de Dobruja.

In 1325, the Ecumenical Patriarch nominated Methodius as Metropolitan of Varna and Carvona.[64]​ After this date, Balik/Balica[65]​ is mentioned as a local ruler in Southern Dobruja. In 1346, he supported John V Palaeologus in his dispute for the Byzantine throne with John VI Cantacuzenus. He sent an army corps under his son Dobrotitsa/Dobrotici and his brother, Theodore, to help the mother of John Palaeologus, Anna of Savoy. For his bravery, Dobrotitsa received the title of strategos and married the daughter of megadux Apokaukos.[66]​ After the reconciliation of the two pretenders, a territorial dispute broke out between the Dobrujan polity and the Byzantine Empire for the port of Midia.[67]​ In 1347, at John V Palaeologus' request, Emir Bahud-din Umur, Bey of Aydin, led a naval expedition against Balik, destroying Dobruja's seaports. Balik and Theodore died during the confrontation, and Dobrotitsa became the new ruler.[68]

 
Principality of Dobrotici/Dobrotitsa during the 1370s

Between 1352 and 1359, with the collapse of Golden Horde rule in Northern Dobruja, a new state appeared. It was controlled by Tatar prince Demetrius, who claimed to be the protector of the river mouths of the Danube.[69]

In 1357 Dobrotitsa was mentioned as a despot ruling over a large territory, including the fortresses of Varna, Kozeakos (near Obzor), and Emona.[70]​ In 1366, John V Palaeologus visited Rome and Buda, trying to gather military support for his campaigns. On his return, he was captured at Vidin by Ivan Alexander, Tsar of Tarnovo, who believed that the new alliances were directed against his realm. An anti-Ottoman crusade under Amadeus VI of Savoy, supported by the republics of Venice and Genoa, was diverted to free the Byzantine emperor. Dobrotitsa collaborated with the crusaders, and after the allies conquered several Bulgarian forts on the Black Sea, Ivan Alexander freed John and negotiated a peace agreement. Dobrotitsa's role in this conflict brought him numerous political advantages: his daughter married one of John V's sons, Michael, and his principality extended its control over some of the forts lost by the Bulgarians (Anchialos and Mesembria).

In 1368, after the death of prince Demetrius, Dobrotitsa was recognised as ruler by Pangalia and other cities on the right bank of the Danube. In 1369, together with Vladislav I of Wallachia, Dobrotitsa helped Prince Stratsimir to win back the throne of Vidin.

Between 1370 and 1375, allied with Venice, Dobritsia challenged Genoese power in the Black Sea. In 1376, he tried to impose his son-in law, Michael, as Emperor of Trebizond, but was unsuccessful. Dobrotitsa supported John V Palaeologus against his son Andronicus IV Palaeologus. In 1379, the Dobrujan fleet participated in the blockade of Constantinople, fighting with the Genoese fleet.

In 1386, Dobrotitsa died and was succeeded by Ivanko/Ioankos. That same year he accepted a peace agreement with Murad I and in 1387 signed a commercial treaty with Genoa. Ivanko was killed in 1388 during the expedition of Ottoman Grand Vizier Çandarli Ali Pasha against Tarnovo and Dristra. The expedition brought most of the Dobrujan forts under Turkish rule.

Mandato valacoEditar

In 1388/1389 Dobruja (Terrae Dobrodicii—as mentioned in a document from 1390) and Dristra (Dârstor) came under the control of Mircea the Elder, ruler of Wallachia, who defeated the Ottoman Grand Vizier.

 
Dobruja (Terra Dobrotici) as part of Wallachia under Mircea the Elder

Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I conquered the southern part of the territory in 1393, attacking Mircea one year later, but without success. In the spring of 1395 Mircea regained the lost Dobrujan territories, with the help of his Hungarian allies.

The Ottomans recaptured Dobruja in 1397 and ruled it to 1404, although in 1401 Mircea strongly defeated an Ottoman army.

The defeat of Sultan Beyezid I by Tamerlane at Ankara in 1402 opened a period of anarchy in the Ottoman Empire. Mircea took advantage of it to organise a new anti-Ottoman campaign: in 1403, he occupied the Genoese fort of Kilia at the mouths of the Danube. Thus in 1404, he could impose his authority on Dobruja. In 1416, Mircea supported the revolt against Sultan Mehmed I, led by Sheikh Bedreddin in the area of Deliorman, in Southern Dobruja.[71]

After Mircea's death in 1418, his son Mihail I fought against the amplified Ottoman attacks, eventually being killed in a battle in 1420. That year, the Sultan Mehmed I personally conducted the definitive conquest of Dobruja by the Turks. Wallachia kept only the mouths of the Danube, but not for a long duration.

In the late 14th century, German traveller Johann Schiltberger described these lands as follows:[72]

I was in three regions, and all three were called Bulgaria. ... The third Bulgaria is there, where the Danube flows into the sea. Its capital is called Kaliakra.

Mandato otomanoEditar

 
Mapa del delta del Danúbio, donde se aprecia su estructura, hecho en 1867 por Heinrich Kiepert.

Occupied by the Turks in 1420, the region remained under Ottoman control until the late 19th century. Initially, it was organised as an udj (border province), included in the sanjak of Silistra, part of the Vilayet of Rumelia. Later, under Murad II or Suleiman I, the sanjak of Silistra and surrounding territories were organised as a separate Vilayet.[73]​ In 1555, a revolt led by the "false" (düzme) Mustafa, a pretender to the Turkish throne, broke out against Ottoman administration in Rumelia and rapidly spread to Dobruja, but was repressed by the beylerbey of Nigbolu.[74][75]

In 1603 and 1612, the region suffered from the forays of Cossacks, who burnt down Isaķči and plundered Küstendje. The Russian Empire occupied Dobruja several times during the Russo-Turkish Wars — in 1771–1774, 1790–1791, 1809–1810, 1829 and 1853. The most violent invasion was that of 1829, which resulted in the depopulation of numerous villages and towns. The Treaty of Adrianople of 1829 ceded the Danube Delta to the Russian Empire. However, Russia was forced to return it to the Ottomans in 1856, after the Crimean War. In 1864 Dobruja was included in the vilayet of Tuna.

During Ottoman rule, groups of Turk, Arab and Tatar peoples settled in the region, the latter especially between 1512 and 1514. During the reign of Peter I of Russia and Catherine the Great, Lipovans immigrated to the region of the Danube Delta. After the destruction of Zaporozhian Sich in 1775, Cossacks were settled in the area north of Lake Razim by the Turkish authorities (where they founded the Danubian Sich). They were forced to leave Dobruja in 1828.

In the second part of the nineteenth‑century, Ruthenians from the Austrian Empire also settled in the Danube Delta. After the Crimean War, a large number of Tatars were forcibly driven away from Crimea, immigrating to then-Ottoman Dobruja and settling mainly in the Karasu Valley in the centre of the region and around Bābā Dāgh. In 1864, Cherkess fleeing from the Russian invasion of the Caucasus were settled in the wooded region near Bābā Dāgh. Germans from Bessarabia also founded colonies in Dobruja between 1840 and 1892.

 
Ethnic map of the Danube mouths from 1861, according to the French geographer Guillaume Lejean. (See the legend here)

According to Bulgarian historian Liubomir Miletich, most Bulgarians living in Dobruja in 1900 were nineteenth-century settlers or their descendants.[76][77]​ In 1850, the scholar Ion Ionescu de la Brad, wrote in a study on Dobruja, ordered by the Ottoman government, that Bulgarians came to the region "in the last twenty years or so".[78]​ According to his study, there were 2,285 Bulgarian families (out of 8,194 Christian families) in the region,[79]​ 1,194 of them in Northern Dobruja.[80]​ Liubomir Miletich puts the number of Bulgarian families in Northern Dobruja in the same year at 2,097.[81]​ According to the statistics of the Bulgarian Exarchate, before 1877 there were 9,324 Bulgarian families out of a total 12,364 Christian families in the Northern Dobruja.[82][verifica la fuente] According to Russian knyaz Vladimir Cherkassky, chief of the Provisional Russian government in Bulgaria in 1877-1878, the Bulgarian population in Dobruja was larger than the Romanian one.[82]​ However, count Shuvalov, the Russian representative to the Congress of Berlin, stated that Romania deserved Dobruja "more than anybody else, because of its population".[83]​ In 1878, the statistics of the Russian governor of Dobruja, Bieloserkovitsch, showed a number of 4,750 Bulgarian "family chiefs" (out of 14,612 Christian family chiefs) in the northern half of the region.[80]

The Christian religious organisation of the region was put under the authority of the Bulgarian Orthodox Church by a firman of the Sultan, promulgated on February 28, 1870.[84]​ However, the ethnic Greeks and most Romanians in Northern Dobruja remained under the authority of the Greek Archdiocese of Tulča (founded in 1829).[85][86]

Después de 1878Editar

 
Tropas rumanas cruzan triunfalmente el Danúbio hacia la parte norte de Dobruja, en una litografía de corte patriótico, 1878
 
Dobruja tras 1878.

Tras la guerra de 1878 war, the Tratado de San Stefano awarded Dobruja to Russia and the newly established Bulgaria. The northern portion, held by Russia, was ceded to Romania in exchange for Russia obtaining territories in Southern Bessarabia, thereby securing a direct access to the mouths of the Danube. In Northern Dobruja, Romanians were the plurality. The population included a Bulgarian ethnic enclave in the northwest (around Babadag), as well as an important Muslim community (mostly Turks and Tatars) scattered around the region.

The southern portion, held by Bulgaria, was reduced the same year by the Treaty of Berlin. At the advice of the French envoy, a strip of land extended inland from the port of Mangalia (shown orange on the map) was ceded to Romania, since its southwestern corner contained a compact area of ethnic Romanians. The town of Silistra, located at the areas' most southwestern point, remained Bulgarian due to its large Bulgarian population. Romania subsequently tried to occupy the town as well, but in 1879 a new international commission allowed Romania to occupy only the fort Arab Tabia, which overlooked Silistra, but not the town itself.

 
Ethnic groups in Dobruja around 1918

At the beginning of the Russo-Turkish War of 1877–1878, most of Dobruja's population was composed of ethnic Turks, Bulgarians and Tatars. During the war, a large part of the Muslim population was evacuated to Bulgaria and Turkey.[87]​ After 1878, the Romanian government encouraged Romanians from other regions to settle in Northern Dobruja and accepted the return of some Muslim population displaced by the war.[88]

According to Bulgarian historians, after 1878 the Romanian church authorities took control over all local churches, with the exception of two in the towns of Tulcea and Constanţa, which managed to retain use of their Bulgarian Slavonic liturgy.[89]​ Between 1879 and 1900, Bulgarians built 15 new churches in Northern Dobruja.[90]​ After 1880, Italians from Friuli and Veneto settled in Greci, Cataloi and Măcin in Northern Dobruja. Most of them worked in the granite quarries in the Măcin Mountains, while some became farmers.[91]​ The Bulgarian authorities encouraged the settling of ethnic Bulgarians in the territory of Southern Dobruja.[92]

In May 1913, the Great Powers awarded Silistra and the area in a 3 km radius around it to Romania, at the Saint Petersburg Conference. In August 1913, after the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria lost Southern Dobruja (Cadrilater) to Romania (See Treaty of Bucharest, 1913). With Romania's entry in World War I on the side of France and Russia, the Central Powers occupied all of Dobruja and gave the Cadrilater, as well as the southern portion of Northern Dobruja, to Bulgaria in the Treaty of Bucharest of 1918. This situation lasted for a short period. As the Allied Powers emerged victorious at the end of the war, Romania regained the lost territories in the Treaty of Neuilly of 1919. Between 1926 and 1938, about 30,000 Aromanians from Bulgaria, Macedonia, and Greece, were resettled in Southern Dobruja.

In 1923 the Internal Dobrujan Revolutionary Organisation (IDRO), a Bulgarian nationalist organisation, was established. Active in Southern Dobruja under different forms until 1940, the IDRO detachments fought against the widespread brigandage in the region,[cita requerida] as well as the Romanian administration. Thus, while considered "a terrorist organisation" by the Romanian authorities, the IDRO was regarded by ethnic Bulgarians as a liberation movement. In 1925, part of the Bulgarian revolutionary committees formed the Dobrujan Revolutionary Organisation (DRO), which later became subordinated to the Communist Party of Romania. In contrast with the IDRO, which fought for the inclusion of the region in the Bulgarian state, the DRO requested the independence of Dobruja and its inclusion in a projected Federative Republic of the Balkans.[93]​ The means used by DRO to attain its goals were also more peaceful.

During World War II, Bulgaria regained Southern Dobruja in the September 1940 Axis-sponsored Treaty of Craiova, despite Romanian negotiators' insistence that Balchik and other towns should remain in Romania. As part of the treaty, the Romanian inhabitants (Aromanian refugee-settlers, settlers from other regions of Romania and the Romanians indigenous to the region) were forced to leave the regained territory, while the Bulgarian minority in the north was expelled to go to Bulgaria in a population exchange. The post-war Paris Peace Treaties of 1947 reaffirmed the 1940 border.

In 1948 and again in 1961–1962, Bulgaria proposed a border rectification in the area of Silistra, consisting mainly in the transfer of a Romanian territory containing the water source of that city. Romania made an alternative proposal that did not involve a territorial change and, ultimately, no rectification took place.[94]

In Romania, 14 November is a holiday observed as Dobrogea Day.[95]


Subdivisiones entre estadosEditar

 
Mapa de Rumania y Bulgaria que se reparten la región de la Dobruja:      Dobrudja septentrional (Rumanía)      Dobrudja meridional (Bulgaria)

En total, Dobruja tiene un área de 23 100 km² y una población de más de 1,3 millones de habitantes, de los que unos dos tercios de la superficie y tres cuartos de la población están en el lado rumano.

Etnicidad[96] Dobruja Dobruja rumana[96] Dobruja búlgara[97]
Cifra Porcentaje Cifra Porcentaje Cifra Porcentaje
Total 1,180,560 100.00% 897,165 100.00% 283,395 100.00%
Rumanos 752,197 63.72% 751,250 83.74% 947 0.33%
Búlgaros 192,756 16.33% 58 0.01% 192,698 68%
Turcos 95,463 8.09% 22,500 2.51% 72,963 25.75%
Tártaros de Dobruja 20,528 1.74% 19,720 2.20% 808 0.29%
Romaníes 24,140 2.04% 11,977 1.33% 12,163 4.29%
Rusos 14,608 1.24% 13,910 1.55% 698 0.25%
Ucranianos 1,250 0.11% 1,177 0.13% 73 0.03%
Griegos 1,467 0.12% 1,447 0.16% 20 0.01%

Las ciudades más habitadas son: Constanța, Tulcea, Medgidia y Mangalia en Rumania, y Dobrich además de Silistra en Bulgaria.

RumaniaEditar

 
La región de Dobruja en Rumanía al este (de amarillo).

La región rumana de Dobrogea consta de las provincias de Constanţa y Tulcea, que suman un área de 15.500 km² y una población de algo más de un millón de habitantes. Sus principales ciudades son Constanza, Tulcea, Medgidia y Mangalia. Dobrogea está representada por unos delfines en el escudo de Rumania.

BulgariaEditar

La región búlgara de Dobrudzha se divide en las provincias de Dobrich y Silistra y tiene un área de 7565 km², así como una población total de unos 350 000 habitantes.

ReferenciasEditar

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  65. Names of the rulers of the Principality of Karvuna are given here as spelled in modern Bulgarian and Romanian, respectively.
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  78. "Les Bulgares sont venus dans la Dobrodja depuis une vingtaine d'années, abandonnant des terres ingrates pour celles bien plus fertiles qu'ils ont trouvée dans ce pays" in Jonesco, J. (1850). Excursion agricole dans la plaine de la Dobrodja (en french). Constantinopole: Imprimerie du Journal de Constantinopole. p. 82. OCLC 251025693. 
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  80. a b Seişanu, Romulus (1928). Dobrogea. Gurile Dunării şi Insula Şerpilor. Schiţă monografică (en romanian). Bucureşti: Tipografia ziarului "Universul". p. 177. 
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  87. A. Rădulescu, I. Bitoleanu, Istoria Dobrogei, p. 333
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  92. A. Rădulescu, I. Bitoleanu, Istoria Dobrogei, pp. 363-364, 381
  93. A. Rădulescu, I. Bitoleanu, Istoria Dobrogei, p. 430
  94. Cojoc, Mariana; Tiță, Magdalena (6 de septiembre de 2006). «Proiecții teritoriale bulgare». Ziua de Constanţa (en romanian). Consultado el 15 de febrero de 2007. 
  95. Președintele Iohannis a promulgat legea prin care data de 14 noiembrie este declarată Ziua Dobrogei (en rumano)
  96. a b 2011 census results per county, cities and towns «Populaţia stabilă pe sexe, după etnie – categorii de localităţi, macroregiuni, regiuni de dezvoltare şi judeţe» (XLS) (en romanian). Institutul Național de Statistică. Consultado el 20 de noviembre de 2015. 
  97. Error en la cita: Etiqueta <ref> inválida; no se ha definido el contenido de las referencias llamadas nsi2011

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