Diferencia entre revisiones de «Mini calabazas y zapallos decorativos»

wikifico y llevo galerías a commons
(wikifico y llevo galerías a commons)
[[Archivo:Cucurbita pepo mini baby miniature pumpkins edible small gourds different colors.jpg|thumb|right|''Cucurbita pepo'' tipo "mini pumpkin" o "baby pumpkin" o "miniature pumpkin"]]
{{wikificar|t=20140821222856}}
Las calabazas[[calabaza]]s y zapallos de pequeño tamaño y con fines decorativos se pueden dividir en dos grupos:
:a)# variedades de Halloween "mini", parecidas a las calabazas de Halloween y se consumen en esa fecha; y
:b)# variedades de cáscara dura y pulpa no comestible, de colores y formas llamativos para uso decorativo durante todo el año.
 
Los dos grupos pertenecen a ''[[Cucurbita pepo]]''. Una única variedad decorativa y también comestible de "mini Turbante" pertenece a ''[[Cucurbita maxima]]'',<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" /> especie de la que últimamente se propusieron variedades decorativas pequeñas de morfología variada.<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" />
 
Numerosos cultivares de ''Cucurbita pepo'' de fruto pequeño y vistoso y cáscara dura poseen un público adepto en Estados Unidos. Filogenéticamente se extraen de varias variedades diferentes dentro de esta especie.
 
ArchivoAlgunos cultivares ornamentales como 'Flat' ("aplanado"), 'Miniature Ball' ("pelota en miniatura") y 'Pear' ("pera") difieren poco de las variedades silvestres y las naturalizadas{{refn|group=cita|name=some ornamental paris 1989|Paris (1989<ref name="Paris 1989" />):Cucurbita "Some of the ornamental gourd cultivars, such as 'Flat', 'Miniature Ball', and 'Pear', differ little from wild and feral ''C. pepo'' miniin babytheir miniaturephenotypic pumpkinscharacteristics, edibleincluding small gourdsfruit differentsize colorsand striped fruit color pattern.jpg|" }}, de nombres botánicos antiguos: ''Cucurbita pepo'' tipovar. "mini''ovifera'' pumpkin"y o''Cucurbita "babypepo'' pumpkin"var. o''aurantia'' "miniaturey pumpkin",''Cucurbita comestibles,pepo'' pequeñosvar. ''verrucosa'', ''Cucurbita pepo'' convar. ''microcarpina''.<br> En las decoraciones se venlas comosuele mezclar con los comestibles "mini pumpkin", que parecen lámparas de Halloween pero son mucho más pequeños,pequeñas y son populares desde la década de 1990.{{refn|group=cita|name=miniature pumpkins robinson|Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997<ref name="Robinson y Decker-Walters 1997" />) p. 79: "Miniature pumpkins of ''Cucurbita pepo'' (e.g. 'Jack Be Little', 'Munchkin', and 'Baby Bear'), with fruits looking like 'Jack O'Lantern' but much smaller, have become popular in recent years. They are used for decoration and are edible as well."}} LosLas hay naranjasde color naranja, blancosblanco, amarillosamarillo o alguna combinación de ellosestos colores, con bandas o sin bandas, y también pueden tener manchas verdes o ser enteramente verdes. 'Jack Be Little', 'Munchkin', 'Baby Bear' son ejemplos de cultivares.<ref group="cita" name="miniature pumpkins robinson" /> Pertenecen al grupo de cultivares ''Cucurbita pepo'' Grupo Pumpkin ya que se ajustan a la descripción formal (inamovible{{refn|group=cita|name=art3.5|Código Internacional de Plantas Cultivadas (Brickell et al. 2009<ref name="Brickell et al. 2009" />) "Art. 3.5. When a Group is divided or when two or more Groups are united or when the circumpscription of a Group is otherwise significantly re-defined in such a way that the resulting Group no longer has the same circumpscription a new name must be given for the resulting Group(s). Ex. 11. In the example given above, ''Solanum tuberosum'' Maincrop Group and ''S. tuberosum'' Red-skinned Group may be united to form a re-circumscribed ''Solanum tuberosum'' Maincrop Red-skinned Group. Ex. 12. ''Tulipa'' Dutch Breeders Group and ''T.'' English Breeders Group were united into the newly circumscribed ''T.'' Breeders Group (see J. F. Ch. Dix, ''A classified list of tulip names'' 4, 1958). Ex. 13. Recent breeding programmes in ''Begonia'' have led to the recognition of separate Groups within the existing Elatior Group. In due course these may be given new Group names instead of being referred to the Eliator Group as currently circumscribed. Ex 14. In the 1950s, a number of ''Magnolia'' hybrids were developed by D. T. Gresham and these have been referred to as Gresham Hybrids or as the Gresham Group. The inclusion of these hybrids in such a Group is unsatisfactory, the Group name being merely a statement of origin with individual members not showing characters in common. Two distinct Groups of Gresham's hybrids have, however, been recognized as Svelte Brunette Group and Buxom Nordic Blonde Group, each of which has a distinct set of characteristics (see J. M. Gardiner, ''Magnolias'' 118-120. 1989)".}}) del grupo: "''Cucurbita pepo'' de frutos esféricos, oblados u ovalados, redondos o aplanados en los extremos".{{refn|group=cita|name=pumpkin paris robinson|El autor del nombre, Paris (1986<ref name="Paris 1986" />): "1. ''Cucurbita pepo'' Pumpkin Group. Fruits spherical, oblate or oval, round or flattened at ends. Cultivars include: ''C. pepo'' 'Connecticut Field', ''C. pepo'' 'Jack O'Lantern', ''C. pepo'' 'Small Sugar', ''C. pepo'' 'Spookie'. ''C. pepo'' L. var. ''pepo'' Bailey." Si bien la descripción es inamovible,<ref group=cita name="art3.5" /> Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997<ref name="Robinson y Decker-Walters 1997" />) p. 78: "For ''Cucurbita pepo'', we will use the classification by Paris (1986), which is based primarily on fruit shape; his groupings of cultivares are: (...) Pumpkin: Fruit orange, round or oval."}} Son utilizadosutilizadas como decoración en [[Halloween]], fecha para la que pueden convertirseconvertidas en pequeñitaspequeñas lámparas de Halloween esculpidas cono dificultad debido al tamañodibujadas, o pueden dibujárseles caritas con marcador, ose pueden ser consumidosconsumir en comidas de Halloween (por ejemplo rellenos), son "los preferidos de los más chicos".<ref>Victoriana Nursery Gardens. Pumpkin Seed 'Jack Be Little'. http://www.victoriananursery.co.uk/Pumpkin_Seed_Jack_Be_Little/</ref> Paris (1989<ref name="Paris 1989" />) llama a 'Little Gem' un "miniature pumpkin" debido al tamaño{{refn|group=cita|name="rare pumpkins Paris 1989"|Paris (1989<ref name="Paris 1989" />): "Some rare pumpkin (''Cucurbita pepo'' Pumpkin Group) cultivars have lignified rinds and even warts. Expression of lignified rind is conditioned by the dominant gene ''Hr'' (hard rind) and of warts by the dominant gene ''Wt''. Both ''Hr'' and ''Wt'' must be present for wartiness to develop (Schaffer et al. 1986a<ref name="Schaffer et al. 1986a" />). Primitive forms from Mexico, exemplified by PIs 442315 and 442325, have smooth but thick lignified rinds; these forms may be representative of an earlier stage in evolution under domestication, an early offshoot, or a separate line of domestication from the pumpkin line. The South African cultivar 'Little Gem' is a miniature pumpkin having a smooth, thin, but lignified rind. 'Nantucket', a pumpkin cultivar of the 19th century (Burr 1863,<ref name="Burr 1863" /> Goff 1888<ref name="Goff 1888" />), had warts. The reportedly very high quality of 'Little Gem' and 'Nantucket' indicates that these pumpkins are well advanced from primitive stocks. Their hard rinds would suggest that they were derived through hybridization between pumpkins and hard-rinded forms".}}, aquí se encuentra en la tabla del grupo Gema de cultivares sudafricanos de alta calidad para consumir inmaduros.
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<ref>Victoriana Nursery Gardens. Pumpkin Seed 'Jack Be Little'. http://www.victoriananursery.co.uk/Pumpkin_Seed_Jack_Be_Little/</ref> Paris (1989<ref name="Paris 1989" />) llama a 'Little Gem' un "miniature pumpkin" debido al tamaño{{refn|group=cita|name="rare pumpkins Paris 1989"|Paris (1989<ref name="Paris 1989" />): "Some rare pumpkin (''Cucurbita pepo'' Pumpkin Group) cultivars have lignified rinds and even warts. Expression of lignified rind is conditioned by the dominant gene ''Hr'' (hard rind) and of warts by the dominant gene ''Wt''. Both ''Hr'' and ''Wt'' must be present for wartiness to develop (Schaffer et al. 1986a<ref name="Schaffer et al. 1986a" />). Primitive forms from Mexico, exemplified by PIs 442315 and 442325, have smooth but thick lignified rinds; these forms may be representative of an earlier stage in evolution under domestication, an early offshoot, or a separate line of domestication from the pumpkin line. The South African cultivar 'Little Gem' is a miniature pumpkin having a smooth, thin, but lignified rind. 'Nantucket', a pumpkin cultivar of the 19th century (Burr 1863,<ref name="Burr 1863" /> Goff 1888<ref name="Goff 1888" />), had warts. The reportedly very high quality of 'Little Gem' and 'Nantucket' indicates that these pumpkins are well advanced from primitive stocks. Their hard rinds would suggest that they were derived through hybridization between pumpkins and hard-rinded forms".}}, aquí se encuentra en la tabla del grupo Gema de cultivares sudafricanos de alta calidad para consumir inmaduros.
----->
 
[[Archivo:Cucurbita maxima edible decorative mini squash.jpg|thumb|right|''Cucurbita maxima'' tipo (mini) "zapallos decorativos",<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" /> pequeños, decorativos y comestibles.<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" /> ''C. maxima'' tipo (mini) "Zapallito-Zipinki" (arriba izquierda), tipo (mini) "Nugget" (arriba derecha), tipo (mini) "Turbante" (medio izquierda), sin nombre en su banco de germoplasma de tipo (mini) "Zipinka" (medio derecha<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" />). Abajo junto con otras calabacitas de ''Cucurbita maxima'' no comestibles (verlas en [[#Cucurbita de uso no alimenticio|''Cucurbita'' de uso no alimenticio]]).<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" />
==Galería de imágenes==
<gallery heights=220 widths=220>
Archivo:Cucurbita pepo mini baby miniature pumpkins edible small gourds different colors.jpg|''Cucurbita pepo'' tipo "mini pumpkin" o "baby pumpkin" o "miniature pumpkin", comestibles, pequeños, se ven como lámparas de Halloween pero son mucho más pequeños, populares desde la década de 1990.{{refn|group=cita|name=miniature pumpkins robinson|Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997<ref name="Robinson y Decker-Walters 1997" />) p. 79: "Miniature pumpkins of ''Cucurbita pepo'' (e.g. 'Jack Be Little', 'Munchkin', and 'Baby Bear'), with fruits looking like 'Jack O'Lantern' but much smaller, have become popular in recent years. They are used for decoration and are edible as well."}} Los hay naranjas, blancos, amarillos o alguna combinación de ellos, con bandas o sin bandas, y también pueden tener manchas verdes o ser enteramente verdes. 'Jack Be Little', 'Munchkin', 'Baby Bear' son ejemplos de cultivares.<ref group="cita" name="miniature pumpkins robinson" /> Pertenecen al grupo de cultivares ''Cucurbita pepo'' Grupo Pumpkin ya que se ajustan a la descripción formal (inamovible{{refn|group=cita|name=art3.5|Código Internacional de Plantas Cultivadas (Brickell et al. 2009<ref name="Brickell et al. 2009" />) "Art. 3.5. When a Group is divided or when two or more Groups are united or when the circumpscription of a Group is otherwise significantly re-defined in such a way that the resulting Group no longer has the same circumpscription a new name must be given for the resulting Group(s). Ex. 11. In the example given above, ''Solanum tuberosum'' Maincrop Group and ''S. tuberosum'' Red-skinned Group may be united to form a re-circumscribed ''Solanum tuberosum'' Maincrop Red-skinned Group. Ex. 12. ''Tulipa'' Dutch Breeders Group and ''T.'' English Breeders Group were united into the newly circumscribed ''T.'' Breeders Group (see J. F. Ch. Dix, ''A classified list of tulip names'' 4, 1958). Ex. 13. Recent breeding programmes in ''Begonia'' have led to the recognition of separate Groups within the existing Elatior Group. In due course these may be given new Group names instead of being referred to the Eliator Group as currently circumscribed. Ex 14. In the 1950s, a number of ''Magnolia'' hybrids were developed by D. T. Gresham and these have been referred to as Gresham Hybrids or as the Gresham Group. The inclusion of these hybrids in such a Group is unsatisfactory, the Group name being merely a statement of origin with individual members not showing characters in common. Two distinct Groups of Gresham's hybrids have, however, been recognized as Svelte Brunette Group and Buxom Nordic Blonde Group, each of which has a distinct set of characteristics (see J. M. Gardiner, ''Magnolias'' 118-120. 1989)".}}) del grupo: "''Cucurbita pepo'' de frutos esféricos, oblados u ovalados, redondos o aplanados en los extremos".{{refn|group=cita|name=pumpkin paris robinson|El autor del nombre, Paris (1986<ref name="Paris 1986" />): "1. ''Cucurbita pepo'' Pumpkin Group. Fruits spherical, oblate or oval, round or flattened at ends. Cultivars include: ''C. pepo'' 'Connecticut Field', ''C. pepo'' 'Jack O'Lantern', ''C. pepo'' 'Small Sugar', ''C. pepo'' 'Spookie'. ''C. pepo'' L. var. ''pepo'' Bailey." Si bien la descripción es inamovible,<ref group=cita name="art3.5" /> Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997<ref name="Robinson y Decker-Walters 1997" />) p. 78: "For ''Cucurbita pepo'', we will use the classification by Paris (1986), which is based primarily on fruit shape; his groupings of cultivares are: (...) Pumpkin: Fruit orange, round or oval."}} Son utilizados como decoración en Halloween, fecha para la que pueden convertirse en pequeñitas lámparas de Halloween esculpidas con dificultad debido al tamaño, o pueden dibujárseles caritas con marcador, o pueden ser consumidos en comidas de Halloween (por ejemplo rellenos), son "los preferidos de los más chicos".<ref>Victoriana Nursery Gardens. Pumpkin Seed 'Jack Be Little'. http://www.victoriananursery.co.uk/Pumpkin_Seed_Jack_Be_Little/</ref> Paris (1989<ref name="Paris 1989" />) llama a 'Little Gem' un "miniature pumpkin" debido al tamaño{{refn|group=cita|name="rare pumpkins Paris 1989"|Paris (1989<ref name="Paris 1989" />): "Some rare pumpkin (''Cucurbita pepo'' Pumpkin Group) cultivars have lignified rinds and even warts. Expression of lignified rind is conditioned by the dominant gene ''Hr'' (hard rind) and of warts by the dominant gene ''Wt''. Both ''Hr'' and ''Wt'' must be present for wartiness to develop (Schaffer et al. 1986a<ref name="Schaffer et al. 1986a" />). Primitive forms from Mexico, exemplified by PIs 442315 and 442325, have smooth but thick lignified rinds; these forms may be representative of an earlier stage in evolution under domestication, an early offshoot, or a separate line of domestication from the pumpkin line. The South African cultivar 'Little Gem' is a miniature pumpkin having a smooth, thin, but lignified rind. 'Nantucket', a pumpkin cultivar of the 19th century (Burr 1863,<ref name="Burr 1863" /> Goff 1888<ref name="Goff 1888" />), had warts. The reportedly very high quality of 'Little Gem' and 'Nantucket' indicates that these pumpkins are well advanced from primitive stocks. Their hard rinds would suggest that they were derived through hybridization between pumpkins and hard-rinded forms".}}, aquí se encuentra en la tabla del grupo Gema de cultivares sudafricanos de alta calidad para consumir inmaduros.
Archivo:Cucurbita maxima edible decorative mini squash.jpg|''Cucurbita maxima'' tipo (mini) "zapallos decorativos",<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" /> pequeños, decorativos y comestibles.<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" /> ''C. maxima'' tipo (mini) "Zapallito-Zipinki" (arriba izquierda), tipo (mini) "Nugget" (arriba derecha), tipo (mini) "Turbante" (medio izquierda), sin nombre en su banco de germoplasma de tipo (mini) "Zipinka" (medio derecha<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" />). Abajo junto con otras calabacitas de ''Cucurbita maxima'' no comestibles (verlas en [[#Cucurbita de uso no alimenticio|''Cucurbita'' de uso no alimenticio]]).<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" />
</gallery>
 
Mini calabazas decorativas no comestibles.
<gallery heights=220 widths=220>
Archivo:Squash Decor.jpg|Diferentes cultivares de ''[[Cucurbita pepo]]'' de tipo decorativo, utilizados como adornos de otoño. Numerosos cultivares de fruto pequeño y vistoso y cáscara dura que poseen un público adepto en Estados Unidos, que se agrupan en ''''''Cucurbita pepo'' Ornamental Gourd Group''' y filogenéticamente se extraen de varias variedades diferentes dentro de esa especie. Algunos cultivares ornamentales como 'Flat' ("aplanado"), 'Miniature Ball' ("pelota en miniatura") y 'Pear' ("pera") difieren poco de las variedades silvestres y las naturalizadas{{refn|group=cita|name=some ornamental paris 1989|Paris (1989<ref name="Paris 1989" />): "Some of the ornamental gourd cultivars, such as 'Flat', 'Miniature Ball', and 'Pear', differ little from wild and feral ''C. pepo'' in their phenotypic characteristics, including small fruit size and striped fruit color pattern." }}. Nombres botánicos antiguos: ''Cucurbita pepo'' var. ''ovifera'' y ''Cucurbita pepo'' var. ''aurantia'' y ''Cucurbita pepo'' var. ''verrucosa'', ''Cucurbita pepo'' convar. ''microcarpina''. En los arreglos se los suele entremezclar con los comestibles "mini pumpkin".
Archivo:Cucurbita maxima subsp. andreana decorative mini bitter squash.jpg|Diferentes cultivos de ''[[Cucurbita maxima]]'' de tipo decorativo, en un arreglo como adornos de otoño.<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" /> Las fotos de arriba pertenecen a ''accesions'' de ''Cucurbita maxima'' subsp. ''andreana''<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" />), en la foto de abajo también hay mini "zapallos decorativos" comestibles<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" />
</gallery>
 
[[Archivo:Squash Decor.jpg|thumb|right|Diferentes cultivares de ''[[Cucurbita pepo]]'' de tipo decorativo, no comestibles utilizados como adornos de otoño.]]
== Cultivares ==
''Cucurbita pepo'' ornamental, no alimenticio.
<gallery>
Cucurbita pepo ornamental gourds - pumpkin party.jpg|
Squash (Cucurbita spec.) - geograph.org.uk - 935471.jpg
Strand Smokehouse Gourds.jpg
Zierkuerbis detail 2.jpg
Zierkuerbis detail 1.jpg
Cucurbita Day 331 Gourds detail - 1 gourd.jpg
Cucurbita pepo 'Warted Orange' Ornamental Group Zierkürbis detail 1 gourd.jpg
- Pumpkins - detail 1.jpg
- Pumpkins - detail 3.jpg
- Pumpkins - detail 4.jpg
- Pumpkins - detail 5.jpg
Cucurbita pepo ornamental - Gourds.jpg
Cucurbita pepo ornamental gourd - orange star.jpg|Orange star.
Cucurbita pepo Ornamental gourd - twist.jpg|Twist. Florida, USA.
Brosen cucurbitaceae1.jpg|
Brosen cucurbitaceae3.jpg|
AutumnSquash.jpg|Ottawa, Canadá.
Cucurbita - Gremlin Kürbis - Gremlin Pumpkin.jpg|Gremlin. Alemania.
Cucurbita - Pocken-Kürbis Smallpox Pumpkin.jpg|Pocken (alemán) Smallpox (inglés). Alemania.
Cucurbita in Bayern - Kürbis - Sortenvielfalt.jpg
Cucurbita ornamental - Autumn Squash I.jpg
Cucurbita ornamental - Autumn Squash II.jpg
Cucurbita ornamental - Autumn Squash III.jpg
Cucurbita ornamental - Autumn Squash IX.jpg
Cucurbita ornamental - Autumn Squash V.jpg
Cucurbita ornamental - Autumn Squash VI.jpg
Cucurbita ornamental - Autumn Squash X.jpg
Cucurbita ornamental - Autumn Squash XI.jpg
Cucurbita ornamental - Autumn Squash XII.jpg
Cucurbita ornamental - Autumn Squash XIV.jpg
Cucurbita ornamental - Autumn Squash XV.jpg
Cucurbita ornamental Autumn Squash XIII.jpg
Cucurbita ornamental - Autumn Squash XVI.jpg
Cucurbita ornamental Autumn Squash IV.jpg
Cucurbita ornamental Autumn Squash VIII.jpg
Cucurbita pepo var ovifera (crop).jpg|Immature bicolor spoon?
Cucurbita pepo gourd bicolor spoon type.jpg|Bicolor spoon.
Cucurbita pepo gourd winged spoon type.jpg|Winged spoon.
Cucurbita pepo gourd goblin egg type.jpg|Goblin egg.
</gallery>
 
[[Archivo:Cucurbita maxima subsp. andreana decorative mini bitter squash.jpg|thumb|right|Diferentes cultivos de ''[[Cucurbita maxima]]'' de tipo decorativo, en un arreglo como adornos de otoño.<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" /> Las fotos de arriba pertenecen a ''accesions'' de ''Cucurbita maxima'' subsp. ''andreana''<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" />), en la foto de abajo también hay mini "zapallos decorativos" comestibles<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" />]]
''Cucurbita maxima'' ornamental, no alimenticio.
<gallery>
Cucurbita maxima ssp andreana accesion Nº 140 UNR.jpg
Cucurbita maxima ssp andreana accesion Nº 202 UNR.jpg
Cucurbita maxima ssp andreana MAX 81 IPK.jpg
Cucurbita maxima ssp andreana PI 458653 GRIN.jpg
</gallery>
 
''Cucurbita pepo'' ornamental, alimenticio.
<gallery>
Calabazas pequeñas de adorno tipo pumpkincitos.jpg|tipo Munchkin
Cucurbita Awesome Little Gourds.jpg
Cucurbita pepo small edible White Pumpkins 9.16.jpg|White, tipo Baby Boo
Cucurbita pepo small edible orange spotted mini baby pumpkins.jpg
Cucurbita pepo smal edible white with orange stripes Mini Pumpkins.jpg|Tiger Stripe
Cucurbita pepo small edible white with orange stripes Mini pumpkins 2.jpg
Small pumpkin 1.JPG
Small pumpkin 2.JPG
</gallery>
 
''Cucurbita maxima'' ornamental, alimenticio.
<gallery>
- Pumpkins - detail 2.jpg|Mini Turban.
Cucurbita maxima PI 458684 GRIN.jpg|Mini Turban.
Cucurbita maxima MAX 306 IPK.jpg|Mini Silpingo.
Cucurbita maxima PI 325133 GRIN.jpg|Mini Nugget.
Cucurbita maxima PI 475749 GRIN.jpg
</gallery>
 
== Citas ==
<ref name="Robinson y Decker-Walters 1997">[http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/19970300408.html Robinson, R. W.; Decker-Walters, D. S. 1997. ''Cucurbits''. CAB INTERNATIONAL.] </ref>
}}
 
== Enlaces externos ==
{{commons|Calabazas ornamentales no comestibles}}
 
[[Categoría:Calabazas para fines no alimenticios]]