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En [[física de partículas]], la '''oscilación de partículas neutras''' es la trasmutación de una partícula sin [[carga eléctrica]] en otra debido a un cambio de un [[número cuántico]] interno mediante una interacción que no conserva dicho número cuántico. Estas oscilaciones se pueden clasificar en dos tipos:
In [[particle physics]], '''neutral particle oscillation''' is the transmutation of a particle with zero [[electric charge]] into another neutral particle due to a change of a non-zero internal [[quantum number]] via an interaction that does not conserve that quantum number. For example, a [[neutron]] cannot transmute into an [[antineutron]] as that would violate the [[Conservation law|conservation]] of [[baryon number]].
* Particle–'''Oscilaciones de partícula-[[antiparticleantipartícula]]:''' oscillationpor (for exampleejemplo, las [[KaonKaón#OscillationOscilaci.C3.B3n|oscilaciones de {{SubatomicParticle|Kaon0}}–{{SubatomicParticle|AntiKaon0}} oscillation]], de [[B–BbarMesón oscillationB#Oscilaciones_B.E2.80.93B|{{SubatomicParticle|B0}}–{{SubatomicParticle|antiB0}} oscillation]], o de [[Mesón D|{{SubatomicParticle|D0}}–{{SubatomicParticle|antiD0}} oscillation]]<ref>{{cite book |last=Griffiths |first=D. J. |year=2008 |title=Elementary Particles |pages=149 |edition=Second, Revised |publisher=[[Wiley-VCH]] |isbn=978-3-527-40601-2}}</ref>).
* '''Oscilación de [[FlavorSabor (particle physicsfísica)|Flavorsabor]]:''' oscillationpor (forejemplo, example,las [[NeutrinoOscilación oscillationde neutrinos|oscilaciones de {{SubatomicParticle|Electron Neutrino}}–{{SubatomicParticle|Muon Neutrino}} oscillation]]) .
En el caso de que las partículas se desintegren en algún estado final, el sistema no es puramente oscilatorio, y se observan interferencias entre la oscilación y la desintegración.
 
== Historia y motivación ==
Such oscillations can be classified into two types:
* Particle–[[antiparticle]] oscillation (for example, [[Kaon#Oscillation|{{SubatomicParticle|Kaon0}}–{{SubatomicParticle|AntiKaon0}} oscillation]], [[B–Bbar oscillation|{{SubatomicParticle|B0}}–{{SubatomicParticle|antiB0}} oscillation]], {{SubatomicParticle|D0}}–{{SubatomicParticle|antiD0}} oscillation<ref>{{cite book |last=Griffiths |first=D. J. |year=2008 |title=Elementary Particles |pages=149 |edition=Second, Revised |publisher=[[Wiley-VCH]] |isbn=978-3-527-40601-2}}</ref>).
* [[Flavor (particle physics)|Flavor]] oscillation (for example, [[Neutrino oscillation|{{SubatomicParticle|Electron Neutrino}}–{{SubatomicParticle|Muon Neutrino}} oscillation]]).
In case the particles decay to some final product, then the system is not purely oscillatory, and an interference between oscillation and decay is observed.
 
=== HistoryViolación andde motivationCP ===
AfterTras theel strikingimpactante evidencedescubrimiento forpor parityparte violationde provided by[[Chien-Shiung Wu|Wu]] ''et al.'' inen 1957, itde wasla assumedviolación thatde la [[Paridad (física)|paridad]], se asumió que CP (chargela conjugation-parity)transformación isconjunta thede quantity[[conjugación de carga]] y paridad) which isse conservedconservaba.<ref>{{Cite journal |last=Wu |first=C. S. |last2=Ambler |first2=E. |last3=Hayward |first3=R. W. |last4=Hoppes |first4=D. D. |last5=Hudson |first5=R. P. |date=1957 |title=Experimental Test of Parity Conservation in Beta Decay |journal=[[Physical Review]] |volume=105 |issue=4 |pages=1413–1415 |bibcode=1957PhRv..105.1413W |doi=10.1103/PhysRev.105.1413 |doi-access=free}}</ref> HoweverSin embargo, inen 1964 Cronin andy Fitch reporteddescubrieron una violación de CP violationen inel thesistema neutralde Kaonkaones systemneutros.<ref name=":6" /> TheyObservaron observedque theel long-livedestado de vida larga K<sub>2</sub> (CP = −1) undergoingpodía twodesintegrarse piona decaysdos piones (CP = (−1)(−1) = +1), therebyviolando violatingla CPconservación conservationde CP.
 
InEn 2001, los experimentos [[BaBar (experimento)|BaBar]] y [[Experimento Belle|Belle]] confirmaron la violación de CP violationen inel thesistema {{SubatomicParticle|B0}}–{{SubatomicParticle|antiB0}} system was confirmed by the [[BaBar experiment|BaBar]] and the [[Belle experiment|Belle]] experiments.<ref>{{Cite journal |last=Abashian |first=A. |display-authors=etal |year=2001 |title=Measurement of the CP Violation Parameter sin2φ1 in B{{su|p=0|b=d}} Meson Decays |journal=[[Physical Review Letters]] |volume=86 |issue=12 |pages=2509–2514 |arxiv=hep-ex/0102018 |bibcode=2001PhRvL..86.2509A |doi=10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.2509}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal |last=Aubert |first=B. |display-authors=etal |collaboration=[[BABAR Collaboration]] |year=2001 |title=Measurement of CP-Violating Asymmetries in B<sup>0</sup> Decays to CP Eigenstates |journal=[[Physical Review Letters]] |volume=86 |issue=12 |pages=2515–2522 |arxiv=hep-ex/0102030 |bibcode=2001PhRvL..86.2515A |doi=10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.2515 |pmid=11289970}}</ref> DirectAmbos CPlaboratorios violationreportaron inviolación thedirecta de CP en {{SubatomicParticle|B0}}–{{SubatomicParticle|antiB0}} system was reported by both the labs byen 2005.<ref>{{Cite journal |last=Aubert |first=B. |display-authors=etal |collaboration=[[BABAR Collaboration]] |year=2004 |title=Direct CP Violating Asymmetry in B<sup>0</sup>→K<sup>+</sup>π<sup>−</sup> Decays |journal=[[Physical Review Letters]] |volume=93 |issue=13 |pages=131801 |arxiv=hep-ex/0407057 |bibcode=2004PhRvL..93m1801A |doi=10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.131801}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal |last=Chao |first=Y. |display-authors=etal |collaboration=[[Belle Collaboration]] |year=2005 |title=Improved measurements of the partial rate asymmetry in B→hh decays |journal=[[Physical Review D]] |volume=71 |issue=3 |pages=031502 |arxiv=hep-ex/0407025 |bibcode=2005PhRvD..71c1502C |doi=10.1103/PhysRevD.71.031502}}</ref>
=== CP violation ===
After the striking evidence for parity violation provided by Wu et al. in 1957, it was assumed that CP (charge conjugation-parity) is the quantity which is conserved.<ref>{{Cite journal |last=Wu |first=C. S. |last2=Ambler |first2=E. |last3=Hayward |first3=R. W. |last4=Hoppes |first4=D. D. |last5=Hudson |first5=R. P. |date=1957 |title=Experimental Test of Parity Conservation in Beta Decay |journal=[[Physical Review]] |volume=105 |issue=4 |pages=1413–1415 |bibcode=1957PhRv..105.1413W |doi=10.1103/PhysRev.105.1413 |doi-access=free}}</ref> However, in 1964 Cronin and Fitch reported CP violation in the neutral Kaon system.<ref name=":6" /> They observed the long-lived K<sub>2</sub> (CP = −1) undergoing two pion decays (CP = (−1)(−1) = +1), thereby violating CP conservation.
 
=== El problema de los neutrinos solares ===
In 2001, CP violation in the {{SubatomicParticle|B0}}–{{SubatomicParticle|antiB0}} system was confirmed by the [[BaBar experiment|BaBar]] and the [[Belle experiment|Belle]] experiments.<ref>{{Cite journal |last=Abashian |first=A. |display-authors=etal |year=2001 |title=Measurement of the CP Violation Parameter sin2φ1 in B{{su|p=0|b=d}} Meson Decays |journal=[[Physical Review Letters]] |volume=86 |issue=12 |pages=2509–2514 |arxiv=hep-ex/0102018 |bibcode=2001PhRvL..86.2509A |doi=10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.2509}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal |last=Aubert |first=B. |display-authors=etal |collaboration=[[BABAR Collaboration]] |year=2001 |title=Measurement of CP-Violating Asymmetries in B<sup>0</sup> Decays to CP Eigenstates |journal=[[Physical Review Letters]] |volume=86 |issue=12 |pages=2515–2522 |arxiv=hep-ex/0102030 |bibcode=2001PhRvL..86.2515A |doi=10.1103/PhysRevLett.86.2515 |pmid=11289970}}</ref> Direct CP violation in the {{SubatomicParticle|B0}}–{{SubatomicParticle|antiB0}} system was reported by both the labs by 2005.<ref>{{Cite journal |last=Aubert |first=B. |display-authors=etal |collaboration=[[BABAR Collaboration]] |year=2004 |title=Direct CP Violating Asymmetry in B<sup>0</sup>→K<sup>+</sup>π<sup>−</sup> Decays |journal=[[Physical Review Letters]] |volume=93 |issue=13 |pages=131801 |arxiv=hep-ex/0407057 |bibcode=2004PhRvL..93m1801A |doi=10.1103/PhysRevLett.93.131801}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal |last=Chao |first=Y. |display-authors=etal |collaboration=[[Belle Collaboration]] |year=2005 |title=Improved measurements of the partial rate asymmetry in B→hh decays |journal=[[Physical Review D]] |volume=71 |issue=3 |pages=031502 |arxiv=hep-ex/0407025 |bibcode=2005PhRvD..71c1502C |doi=10.1103/PhysRevD.71.031502}}</ref>
[[Archivo:Kép1.png|miniaturadeimagen|Comparación entre las predicciones teóricas (sin oscilación de neutrinos) para la producción de neutrinos solares y los resultados de distintos experimentos.]]
TheLa [[Proton–protonCadena chain reactionprotón-protón|cadena pp chain]] inen theel sunSol producesproduce anuna abundancegran ofcantidad de {{SubatomicParticle|Electron Neutrino}}. InEn 1968, [[Raymond Davis, Jr.|Raymond Davis]] ''et al.'' firstpublicaron reportedlos theresultados resultsdel ofexperimento thede [[Homestake experiment]].<ref>{{Cite web |last=Bahcall |first=J. N. |date=28 April 2004 |title=Solving the Mystery of the Missing Neutrinos |url=https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/themes/physics/bahcall/ |publisher=[[The Nobel Foundation]] |accessdate=2016-12-08}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal |last1=Davis, Jr. |first1=R. |last2=Harmer |first2=D. S. |last3=Hoffman |first3=K. C. |date=1968 |title=Search for Neutrinos from the Sun |journal=[[Physical Review Letters]] |volume=20 |issue=21 |pages=1205–1209 |bibcode=1968PhRvL..20.1205D |doi=10.1103/PhysRevLett.20.1205}}</ref> AlsoEste knownexperimento asempleaba theun Davistanque experiment,enorme itde used[[percloroetileno]] asituado hugeen tankla ofmina perchloroethylene inde Homestake mine (itDakota wasdel deepSur, undergroundEstados toUnidos), eliminatebajo backgroundtierra frompara cosmiceliminar rays),el Southfondo Dakota,creado USApor los [[Radiación cósmica|rayos cósmicos]]. ChlorineLos nucleinúcleos inde thecloro perchloroethylenedel absorbpercloroetileno absorben {{SubatomicParticle|Electron Neutrino}} topara produceproducir argonargón viamediante thela reactionreacción
 
<math>{{\nu }_{e}}+C{{l}^{37}}\to A{{r}^{38}}+{{e}^{-}}</math>,
The {{SubatomicParticle|Kaon0}}–{{SubatomicParticle|AntiKaon0}} and the {{SubatomicParticle|B0}}–{{SubatomicParticle|antiB0}} systems can be studied as two state systems considering the particle and its antiparticle as the two states.
 
que es esencialmente
=== The solar neutrino problem ===
The [[Proton–proton chain reaction|pp chain]] in the sun produces an abundance of {{SubatomicParticle|Electron Neutrino}}. In 1968, [[Raymond Davis, Jr.|Raymond Davis]] et al. first reported the results of the [[Homestake experiment]].<ref>{{Cite web |last=Bahcall |first=J. N. |date=28 April 2004 |title=Solving the Mystery of the Missing Neutrinos |url=https://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/themes/physics/bahcall/ |publisher=[[The Nobel Foundation]] |accessdate=2016-12-08}}</ref><ref>{{Cite journal |last1=Davis, Jr. |first1=R. |last2=Harmer |first2=D. S. |last3=Hoffman |first3=K. C. |date=1968 |title=Search for Neutrinos from the Sun |journal=[[Physical Review Letters]] |volume=20 |issue=21 |pages=1205–1209 |bibcode=1968PhRvL..20.1205D |doi=10.1103/PhysRevLett.20.1205}}</ref> Also known as the Davis experiment, it used a huge tank of perchloroethylene in Homestake mine (it was deep underground to eliminate background from cosmic rays), South Dakota, USA. Chlorine nuclei in the perchloroethylene absorb {{SubatomicParticle|Electron Neutrino}} to produce argon via the reaction
 
<math>{{\nu }_{e}}+C{{l}^{37}}\to A{{r}^{38}}+{{e}^{-}}</math>
 
which is essentially
 
<math>{{\nu }_{e}}+n\to p+e^{-}</math>.<ref>{{cite book |last=Griffiths |first=D. J. |year=2008 |title=Elementary Particles |pages=390 |edition=Second, Revised |publisher=[[Wiley-VCH]] |isbn=978-3-527-40601-2}}</ref>
 
El experimento recogió el argón producido durante varios meses. Dado que la interacción de los neutrino es muy débil, solo se creaba aproximadamente un núcleo de argón cada dos días. La cantidad obtenida era solamente un tercio de la predicción teórica de [[John N. Bahcall|Bahcall]].
The experiment collected argon for several months. Because neutrino interacts very weakly, only about one Argon atom was collected every two days. The total accumulation was about one third of [[John N. Bahcall|Bahcall's]] theoretical prediction.
 
InEn 1968, [[Bruno Pontecorvo]] showeddemostró thatque ifsi neutrinosse aresupone notque consideredlos masslessneutrinos tienen masa, thenlos {{SubatomicParticle|Electron Neutrino}} (producedproducidos inen the sun)el canSol transformse intopueden sometransformar otheren neutrinootras speciesespecies ({{SubatomicParticle|Muon Neutrino}} oro {{SubatomicParticle|Tau Neutrino}}), toque whichno Homestakeserían detectordetectadas waspor insensitive.el Thisexperimento explained the deficit in the results of thede Homestake. experiment.La Theconfirmación final confirmationa ofesta thissolución solutiondel toproblema thede solarlos neutrinoneutrinos problemsolares wasla providedproporcionó inel April 2002 by the SNO ([[Sudbury Neutrino Observatory|SNO]]) collaborationen abril de 2002, whichmidiendo tanto measuredel flujo de both {{SubatomicParticle|Electron Neutrino}} fluxcomo andel theflujo total neutrinode fluxneutrinos.<ref>{{Cite journal |last=Ahmad |first=Q. R. |display-authors=etal |collaboration=[[SNO Collaboration]] |date=2002 |title=Direct Evidence for Neutrino Flavor Transformation from Neutral-Current Interactions in the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory |journal=[[Physical Review Letters]] |volume=89 |issue= |pages=011301 |arxiv=nucl-ex/0204008 |bibcode=2002PhRvL..89a1301A |doi=10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.011301 |doi-access=free |pmid=12097025}}</ref> This 'oscillation' between the neutrino species can first be studied considering any two, and then generalized to the three known flavors.
 
== Description as a two-state system ==
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