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== Tamaño del genoma ==
Gráfico de registro logarítmico del número total de proteínas anotadas en genomas enviados a GenBank en función del tamaño del genoma. [40]
 
El tamaño del genoma es el número total de pares de bases de ADN en una copia de un genoma haploide. En los seres humanos, el genoma nuclear comprende aproximadamente 3,2 billones de nucleótidos de ADN, divididos en 24 moléculas lineales, los 50 000 000 nucleótidos más cortos de longitud y los 260 000 000 nucleótidos más largos, cada uno contenido en un cromosoma diferente. [41]<ref>{{cite web|title=Human genome|url=http://www.whatisdna.net/wiki/genetic-genealogy-understanding-ancestry-dna/|access-date=19 August 2016}}</ref> El tamaño del genoma se correlaciona positivamente con la complejidad morfológica entre procariotas y eucariotas inferiores; sin embargo, después de los moluscos y todos los otros eucariotas superiores mencionados anteriormente, esta correlación ya no es efectiva. [26]<ref name="Lewin 2004" /><ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Gregory TR, Nicol JA, Tamm H, Kullman B, Kullman K, Leitch IJ, Murray BG, Kapraun DF, Greilhuber J, Bennett MD | title = Eukaryotic genome size databases | journal = Nucleic Acids Research | volume = 35 | issue = Database issue | pages = D332-8 | date = January 2007 | pmid = 17090588 | doi = 10.1093/nar/gkl828 }}</ref> [42] Este fenómeno también indica la poderosa influencia que proviene del ADN repetitivo en los genomas.
 
Dado que los genomas son muy complejos, una estrategia de investigación es reducir al mínimo la cantidad de genes en un genoma y aún así sobrevivir al organismo en cuestión. Se está realizando un trabajo experimental sobre genomas mínimos para organismos unicelulares, así como genomas mínimos para organismos multicelulares (ver Biología del desarrollo). El trabajo es tanto ''[[in vivo]]'' como ''[[in silico]]''.<ref>{{cite [43]journal [44]| vauthors = Glass JI, Assad-Garcia N, Alperovich N, Yooseph S, Lewis MR, Maruf M, Hutchison CA, Smith HO, Venter JC | title = Essential genes of a minimal bacterium | journal = Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | volume = 103 | issue = 2 | pages = 425–30 | date = January 2006 | pmid = 16407165 | pmc = 1324956 | doi = 10.1073/pnas.0510013103 | bibcode = 2006PNAS..103..425G }}
 
Aquí hay una tabla de algunos genomas significativos o representativos. Vea # Consulte también las listas de genomas secuenciados.
[[File:Genome size vs number of genes.svg|thumbnail|[[Log-log]] plot of the total number of annotated proteins in genomes submitted to [[GenBank]] as a function of genome size.<ref name="koonin2009">{{Cite book | publisher = FT Press | isbn = 978-0-13-254249-4 | last = Koonin | first = Eugene V. | title = The Logic of Chance: The Nature and Origin of Biological Evolution | date = 2011-08-31 }}</ref>]]
[[Genome size]] is the total number of DNA base pairs in one copy of a haploid genome. In humans, the nuclear genome comprises approximately 3.2 billion nucleotides of DNA, divided into 24 linear molecules, the shortest 50 000 000 nucleotides in length and the longest 260 000 000 nucleotides, each contained in a different chromosome.<ref>{{cite web|title=Human genome|url=http://www.whatisdna.net/wiki/genetic-genealogy-understanding-ancestry-dna/|access-date=19 August 2016}}</ref> The genome size is positively correlated with the morphological complexity among [[bacterial genome size|prokaryotes]] and lower [[eukaryotes]]; however, after mollusks and all the other higher eukaryotes above, this correlation is no longer effective.<ref name="Lewin 2004"/><ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Gregory TR, Nicol JA, Tamm H, Kullman B, Kullman K, Leitch IJ, Murray BG, Kapraun DF, Greilhuber J, Bennett MD | title = Eukaryotic genome size databases | journal = Nucleic Acids Research | volume = 35 | issue = Database issue | pages = D332-8 | date = January 2007 | pmid = 17090588 | doi = 10.1093/nar/gkl828 }}</ref> This phenomenon also indicates the mighty influence coming from repetitive DNA on the genomes.
 
Since genomes are very complex, one research strategy is to reduce the number of genes in a genome to the bare minimum and still have the organism in question survive. There is experimental work being done on minimal genomes for single cell organisms as well as minimal genomes for multi-cellular organisms (see [[Developmental biology]]). The work is both ''[[in vivo]]'' and ''[[in silico]]''.<ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Glass JI, Assad-Garcia N, Alperovich N, Yooseph S, Lewis MR, Maruf M, Hutchison CA, Smith HO, Venter JC | title = Essential genes of a minimal bacterium | journal = Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America | volume = 103 | issue = 2 | pages = 425–30 | date = January 2006 | pmid = 16407165 | pmc = 1324956 | doi = 10.1073/pnas.0510013103 | bibcode = 2006PNAS..103..425G }}
</ref><ref>{{cite journal | vauthors = Forster AC, Church GM | title = Towards synthesis of a minimal cell | journal = Molecular Systems Biology | volume = 2 | issue = 1 | pages = 45 | date = 2006 | pmid = 16924266 | pmc = 1681520 | doi = 10.1038/msb4100090 }}</ref>
 
Aquí hay una tabla de algunos genomas significativos o representativos. Vea # Consulte también las listas de genomas secuenciados.
Here is a table of some significant or representative genomes. See [[#See also]] for lists of sequenced genomes.
[[File:Genome size vs number of genes.svg|thumbnail|[[LogDiagrama log-log]] plotdel of thenúmero total numberde ofproteínas annotatedanotadas proteinsen ingenomas genomesenviados submitted toa [[GenBank]] asen afunción functiondel oftamaño genomedel sizegenoma.<ref name="koonin2009">{{Cite book | publisher = FT Press | isbn = 978-0-13-254249-4 | last = Koonin | first = Eugene V. | title = The Logic of Chance: The Nature and Origin of Biological Evolution | date = 2011-08-31 }}</ref>]]
 
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