Diferencia entre revisiones de «Luteranismo»

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Los intentos de Lutero de reformar la teología y las prácticas de la [[Iglesia católica]] dieron pie a la reforma luterana en las zonas germanoparlantes del [[Sacro Imperio Romano]]. Tras la publicación de las [[95 tesis]] en 1517, los escritos de Lutero se difundieron a escala internacional gracias a la recién inventada [[imprenta]], al margen de la influencia y control de la [[curia romana]] ni del [[Emperador del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico|Sacro Emperador]].<ref>MSN Encarta, s.v. "[http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761561935/Lutheranism.html Lutheranism] {{Wayback|url=http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761561935/Lutheranism.html |date=20090131191959 }}" by [[George Forell|George Wolfgang Forell]]; <cite>Christian Cyclopedia</cite>, s.v. "[http://www.lcms.org/ca/www/cyclopedia/02/display.asp?t1=r&word=REFORMATION.LUTHERAN Reformation, Lutheran]" by Lueker, E. et. al. [https://www.webcitation.org/5kwR0kOjM?url=http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761561935/Lutheranism.html Archived] 31 October 2009.</ref> Tras la [[Dieta de Worms]] de 1521, la separación absoluta entre luteranos y católicos se hizo pública y clara: los edictos de la Dieta condenaron a Lutero y a sus ideas y prohibieron a los ciudadanos del Sacro Imperio Romano la propagación o defensa de las ideas luteranas.<ref name=ENC3>Fahlbusch, Erwin, and Bromiley, Geoffrey William, ''The Encyclopedia of Christianity, Volume 3''. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Eerdmans, 2003. p. 362.</ref> Los principales temas de disensión eran dos: el origen de la autoridad en la iglesia (el ''principio formal''), y la [[doctrina de la justificación]], frecuentemente llamada el ''principio material''.
 
El luteranismo cree en la justificación [[sola gratia|solamente por la gracia]], que se obtiene [[sola fide|solamente mediante la fe]]. Los luteranos creen que el cristianismo, en cuestiones de fe y doctrina (no así de liturgia u otros asuntos, en los que apela a la Tradición) se basa [[sola scriptura|solamente en la Escritura]], es decir, que la Biblia es la autoridad suprema en todas cuestiones relativas a la doctrina cristiana, dejando a la sagrada Tradición sujeta a la Escritura. A diferencia de los luteranos, la Iglesia católica define que la autoridad doctrinal proviene tanto de la Biblia como de la [[Sagrada Tradición]].<ref>''Canons and Decrees of the Council of Trent'', Fourth Session, Decree on Sacred Scripture (Denzinger 783 [1501]; Schaff 2:79–81). For a history of the discussion of various interpretations of the Tridentine decree, see Selby, Matthew L., ''The Relationship Between Scripture and Tradition according to the Council of Trent'', unpublished Master's thesis, University of St Thomas, July 2013.</ref> El luteranismo acepta las resoluciones de los siete primeros [[concilio ecuménico|concilios ecuménicos]].<ref name="Olson1999">{{cite book|title=The Ecumenical Councils and Authority in and of the Church|date=10 de julio de 1993|publisher=The Lutheran World Federation|location=https://www.lutheranworld.org/sites/default/files/1993-Lutheran_Orthodox_Dialogue-EN.pdf|quote=The seven ecumenical councils of the early Church were assemblies of the bishops of the Church from all parts of the Roman Empire to clarify and express the apostolic faith. These councils are Nicaea (325 AD), Constantinople I (381), Ephesus (431), Chalcedon (451), Constantinople II (553), Constantinople III (680/81), and Nicaea II (787)... As Lutherans and Orthodox we affirm that the teachings of the ecumenical councils are authoritative for our churches....The Seventh Ecumenical Council, the Second Council of Nicaea in 787, which rejected iconoclasm and restored the veneration of icons in the churches, was not part of the tradition received by the Reformation. Lutherans, however, rejected the iconoclasm of the 16th century, and affirmed the distinction between adoration due to the Triune God alone and all other forms of veneration (CA 21). Through historical research this council has become better known. Nevertheless it does not have the same significance for Lutherans as it does for the Orthodox. Yet, Lutherans and Orthodox are in agreement that the Second Council of Nicaea confirms the christological teaching of the earlier councils and in setting forth the role of images (icons) in the lives of the faithful reaffirms the reality of the incarnation of the eternal Word of God, when it states: "The more frequently, Christ, Mary, the mother of God, and the saints are seen, the more are those who see them drawn to remember and long for those who serve as models, and to pay these icons the tribute of salutation and respectful veneration. Certainly this is not the full adoration in accordance with our faith, which is properly paid only to the divine nature, but it resembles that given to the figure of the honored and life-giving cross, and also to the holy books of the gospels and to other sacred objects" (Definition of the Second Council of Nicaea).}}</ref><ref name="Kelly2009">{{cite book|title=Ecumenical Council|publisher=Titi Tudorancea Encyclopedia|year=1991–2016|location=https://www.tititudorancea.net/z/ecumenical_council.htm|quote=The Lutheran World Federation, in ecumenical dialogues with the Ecumenical Patriarch of Constantinople has affirmed all of the first seven councils as ecumenical and authoritative.}}</ref> Según las [[Confesiones de Augsburgo]], uno de los principales [[credo]]s luteranos, «la fe confesada por Lutero y sus seguidores no es nada nuevo, sino que es la verdadera fe católica, y sus iglesias representan la verdadera iglesia católica o universal».<ref name="Ludwig2016">{{cite web|title=Luther’s Catholic Reformation|last=Ludwig|first=Alan|date=12 de septiembre de 2016|publisher=The Lutheran Witness|language=inglés|quote= When the Lutherans presented the Augsburg Confession before Emperor Charles V in 1530, they carefully showed that each article of faith and practice was true first of all to Holy Scripture, and then also to the teaching of the church fathers and the councils and even the canon law of the Church of Rome. They boldly claim, “This is about the Sum of our Doctrine, in which, as can be seen, there is nothing that varies from the Scriptures, or from the Church Catholic, or from the Church of Rome as known from its writers” (AC XXI Conclusion 1). The underlying thesis of the Augsburg Confession is that the faith as confessed by Luther and his followers is nothing new, but the true catholic faith, and that their churches represent the true catholic or universal church. In fact, it is actually the Church of Rome that has departed from the ancient faith and practice of the catholic church (see AC XXIII 13, XXVIII 72 and other places).}}</ref> pero estaba equivocado ya que luterano compartia las enseñansas hebreas y no romanas. Los luteranos que presentaron las Confesiones de Augsburgo a [[Carlos V de Alemania]] creían que todos sus artículos de fe y prácticas litúrgicas eran fieles a la Biblia, pero también a las enseñanzas de los [[Padres de la Iglesia]] y a los concilios ecuménicos.<ref name="Ludwig2016"/>
 
La [[Federación Mundial Luterana]] es la principal comunión de iglesias luteranas y representa a más de 74 millones de personas.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.lutheranworld.org/content/member-churches|title=Member Churches |publisher= The Lutheran World Federation|accessdate=5 de marzo de 2015}}</ref> También existen otras organizaciones internacionales, como el [[Concilio Luterano Internacional]], el cuál es un sínodo formado por iglesias meramente confesionales y conservadoras, o la [[Conferencia Luterana Evangélica Confesional]]. Además, algunas iglesias luteranas se organizan de forma independiente y autónoma.
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