Diferencia entre revisiones de «Pechin»

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La clase pechin también era responsable de desarrollar la técnica tradicional de combate, denominada ''Ti'' (''Te''), de la que se deriva el [[kárate]] actual. Los pechin mantenían en secreto esta técnica y generalmente sólo transmitían los movimientos más desequilibrantes a un solo miembro de la familia por generación, normalmente al [[primogénito]]. Esta clase guerrera formó parte del sistema de castas de Okinawa, y, al ser considerada parte de la clase alta, los pechin solían viajar acompañados por un sirviente.
 
==Historia==
Dadas las sucesivas prohibiciones de armas, para los samurái de Ryūkyū cualquier técnica de autodefensa sin armas llegó a cobrar una gran importancia. La primera vez que las armas de los samurái de Okinawa fueron confiscadas fue durante el reinado del [[rey Shoshin]] (1477-1526), que unificó Okinawa para formar un [[Reino Ryūkyū]]. La segunda vez que los samurái de Ryūkyū fueron desarmados fue tras la invasión por parte de [[Dominio de Satsuma|Satsuma]] en 1609, que les prohibió llevar armas.
 
Sin embargo, los samurái de Ryūkyū no estaban completamente desarmados. Se han recuperado documentos que muestran que Satsuma prohibió la posesión y venta de armas de fuego en Okinawa. Sin embargo, los samurái de Okinawa de la clase Pechin o superior estaban autorizados para conservar armas de fuego que ya formaran parte de las posesiones familiares.
 
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Toshihiro Oshiro, historian of Okinawan martial arts, states:
<blockquote>
"There is further documentation that in 1613 the Satsuma issued permits for the Okinawan samurai to travel with their personal swords (tachi and wakizashi) to the smiths and polishers in Kagushima, Japan for maintenance and repair. From the issuance of these permits, it is logical to infer that there were restrictions on the Okinawan samurai carrying their weapons in public, but it is also clear evidence that these weapons were not confiscated by the Satsuma."
</blockquote>
 
==Hard Times for the Ryūkyū Samurai==
Undoubtedly the Ryūkyū Samurai of the Pechin class was the hardest hit by the changing times. They were the only class that did not have a clear place in the modern world.
 
In 1872, the Japanese [[Meiji period|Meiji]] government abolishes the Ryūkyū Kingdom and creates the Ryūkyū Han or feudal clan.
 
In 1879, the Japanese Meiji government abolishes the Ryūkyū feudal clan and creates the [[Okinawa Prefecture]].
 
===Public Proclamation by Chief Secretary Matsuda of Ryūkyū Han===
<blockquote>
Because the Imperial Decree issued in Meiji 8th year (1875) has not been complied with, the Government was compelled to abolish the feudal clan. The former feudal Lord, his family and kin will be accorded princely treatment, and the persons of citizens, including '''samurai''' (Okinawan Samurai), their hereditary stipends, property and business interests will be dealt with in a manner as close to traditional customs as is possible. Any acts of maladministration, and exhorbitant taxes and dues levied during the regime of the former clan government will probably be righted upon careful consideration. Do not be misled by irresponsible rumors. All are advised to pursue their respective occupations with ease of mind.''
</blockquote>
 
The hereditary lords of the Okinawan or Ryūkyū Kingdom were strongly opposed to the annexation by Japan, but the Ryūkyū King forbids the Ryūkyū Samurai and aristocrates from fighting the annexation. Ryūkyū submitted to Japan's annexation plans and 300 lords, 2000 aristocratic families and the king were removed from their positions of power. However, to avoid an armed Samurai revolt in Okinawa, as had happened in Japan, special ceremonies were performed for the Ryūkyū Samurai of the Pechin class, where they were permitted to honorably accept defeat and ritually cut off their hair (top-knot).
 
In Okinawa the samurai class lost a major source of income in 1903, when massive peasant protest sparked land reforms and the abolition of peasant taxes that sustained the Okinawan Samurai class. Many Okinawan Samurai found themselves having to reveal their secret unarmed fighting techniques to commoners for income and to keep some element of status. Many traditional Okinawan Karate styles will list in their genealogy, Karate masters of the Pechin class in the early stages of the style.
 
==Karate's Origins in Okinawa==
Shosin Nagamine (recipient of the Fifth Class Order of the Rising Sun from the Emperor of Japan) states in his book ''The Essence of Okinawan Karate-Do'', on pg. 21 " The forbidden art (Kara-Te) was passed down from father to son among the samurai class in Okinawa".
 
The '''Okinawa Prefectural Government''' in recent years has tried to clarify misunderstandings by the West as to the history and development of Karate in Okinawa. The Okinawa Prefectural Government English and Japanese website Karate and martial arts with weaponry states that Karate was a secret of the Okinawan Samurai.
 
Karate was practiced exclusively among the Ryūkyū or Okinawan warrior class (Okinawan Samurai) – Pechin. Peasants were strictly prohibited from practicing or being taught these secret unarmed fighting techniques.
 
==See also==
* [[Ryūkyū Kingdom]]
* [[Okinawa prefecture]]
* [[Ryūkyūans|Ryūkyūan people]]
* [[Gushiken]]
 
==References==
* ''Okinawa, The History of an Island People'' by George H. Kerr
* ''The Essence of Okinawan Karate-Do'' by Shosin Nagamine
 
[[en:Pechin]]