Diferencia entre revisiones de «Escocés del Úlster»

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El ''Escocés del Ulster'' o ''Ullans'' se refieren a las variantes del antiguo idioma Escocés que se habla en las provincias del Ulster, en Irlanda del Norte.
El número de hablantes se estima entre los 35.000 en Irlanda del Norte y un total de 100.000 si incluimos la República de Irlanda.
 
<!---
 
{{For|the people|Ulster Scots people}}
{{Infobox Language
|name=Ulster Scots
|nativename=Scotch
|states=[[Northern Ireland]], [[Republic of Ireland]]
|speakers= Estimates range from 35,000 in Northern Ireland,<ref name="dcalni.gov.uk">[http://www.dcalni.gov.uk/index/language-cultural-diversity-r08/frequently_asked_questions.htm#q1 DCAL What languages are spoken in Northern Ireland?]</ref> to a total of 100,000 including the Republic of Ireland.<ref name="Ulster Scots">[http://www.uni-due.de/IERC/ulster_scots.htm Ulster Scots]</ref>
|iso2=sco
|iso3=sco
|familycolor=Indo-European
|fam1=[[Indo-European languages|Indo-European]]
|fam2=[[Germanic languages|Germanic]]
|fam3=[[West Germanic language|West Germanic]]
|fam4=[[Anglo-Frisian languages|Anglo-Frisian]]
|fam5=[[Anglic languages|Anglic]]
|fam6=[[Scots language|Scots]]
|script=[[Latin alphabet]]
|agency=None: the [[Ulster-Scots Agency]] promotes usage.
|notice=nonotice
}}
 
'''Ulster Scots''' (or '''[[:Wiktionary:Ullans|Ullans]]''') generally refers to the dialects of [[Scots language|Scots]]<ref>Macafee C (2001) ''Lowland Sources of Ulster Scots'' in Kirk J.M. & Ó Baoill D.P., Languages Links: The Languages of Scotland and Ireland, Cló Ollscoil na Banríona, Belfast. p.121</ref><ref>Harris J. (1985) Phonological Variation and Change: Studies in Hiberno English, Cambridge. p.15</ref> spoken in parts of [[Ulster]].<ref>Gregg R.J. (1972) ''The Scotch-Irish Dialect Boundaries in Ulster'' in Wakelin M.F., Patterns in the Folk Speech of The British Isles, London</ref> Some definitions of Ulster Scots may also include [[Standard English]] spoken with an Ulster Scots accent<ref>Gregg R.J. (1964) ''Scotch-Irish Urban Speech in Ulster: A Phonological Study of the Regional Standard English of Larne, County Antrim'' in Adams G.B. Ulster Dialects an Introductory Symposium, Cultura: Ulster Folk Museum</ref><ref>Harris J. (1985) Phonological Variation and Change: Studies in Hiberno English, Cambridge. p.14</ref> – where lexical items have been re-allocated to the [[phoneme]] classes that are nearest to the equivalent standard classes<ref>Harris J. (1984) ''English in the north of Ireland'' in Trudgill P., Language in the British Isles, Cambridge p.119</ref> – a situation equivalent to that of Lowland Scots and [[Scottish English|Scottish Standard English]].<ref>Harris J. (1984) ''English in the north of Ireland'' in Trudgill P., Language in the British Isles, Cambridge p.119</ref> Ulster Scots has also been influenced by, and has itself influenced, [[Mid Ulster English]]. As a result of the competing influences of English and Scots source dialects, [[variety (linguistics)|varieties]] can be characterised as 'more English' or 'more Scots'.<ref>Harris J. (1985) Phonological Variation and Change: Studies in Hiberno English, Cambridge. p.14</ref>
 
==Nomenclature==
 
While once referred to as ''Scotch-Irish'' by several researchers, that has now been superseded by the term ''Ulster Scots''<ref>Harris J. (1985) Phonological Variation and Change: Studies in Hiberno English, Cambridge. p.13</ref>. Native Speakers usually refer to their vernacular as '[[Scotch (adjective)|Scotch]]'<ref>Nic Craith M. (2002)
Plural Identities--singular Narratives. Berghahn Books. p.107</ref>
or the 'hamely tongue'<ref>Fenton J. (1995) The Hamely Tongue: A Personal Record of Ulster-Scots in County Antrim, Ulster-Scots Academic Press</ref>. Since the 1980s it has also been called 'Ullans', a [[portmanteau]] [[neologism]] popularized by the physician, amateur historian and politician [[Ian Adamson|Dr Ian Adamson]]<ref>Falconer G. (2006) The Scots Tradition in Ulster, Scottish studies review, Vol. 7, Nº 2. p.97</ref>, merging ''Ulster'' and ''[[Lallans]]'' - the Scots for ''Lowlands''<ref>Hickey R. (2004) A Sound Atlas of Irish English. Walter de Gruyter. p.156</ref>- but also an acronym for "'''U'''lster-Scots '''l'''anguage in '''l'''iterature and '''n'''ative '''s'''peech".<ref>Tymoczko
M. & Ireland C.A. (2003) Language and Tradition in Ireland: Continuities and Displacements, Univ of Massachusetts Press. p.159</ref> Occasionally the term ''Hiberno-Scots'' is used<ref>Wells J.C. (1982) Accents of English: The British Isles, Cambridge University Press p.449</ref>, although it is usually used for the Ethnic group<ref>Winston A. (1997) Global Convulsions: Race, Ethnicity, and Nationalism at the End of the Twentieth Century, SUNY Press p.161</ref> rather than the vernacular.
 
==Speaker population==
[[File:English dialects in Ulster.png|thumb|right|275px|Approximate boundaries of the [[English language|English]] and Scots dialects spoken in Ulster. '''Ulster Scots areas are shaded light blue.''']]
During the middle of the 20th century, the linguist [[R. J. Gregg]] established the geographical boundaries of Ulster's Scots-speaking areas based on information gathered from native speakers<ref>Gregg R.J. (1972) ''The Scotch-Irish Dialect Boundaries'' in Ulster in Wakelin M.F., Patterns in the Folk Speech of The British Isles, London</ref>.
 
Ulster Scots is spoken in east [[County Antrim|Antrim]], north [[County Down|Down]], north-west [[County Londonderry]], the Laggan area of [[County Donegal|Donegal]], and also in the fishing villages of the Mourne coast.<ref>Dr. C. I. Macafee (ed.), ''A Concise Ulster Dictionary'', (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), xi-xii.</ref>
 
The 1999 Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey found that 2% of [[Northern Ireland]] residents claimed to speak Ulster Scots, which would mean a total speech community of approximately 30,000 in the territory.<ref>[http://www.ark.ac.uk/nilt/1999/Community_Relations/USPKULST.html Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey, 1999]</ref> Other estimates range from 35,000 in Northern Ireland,<ref name="dcalni.gov.uk"/> to an "optimistic" total of 100,000 including the Republic of Ireland.<ref name="Ulster Scots"/> Speaking at a seminar on 9 September 2004, Ian Sloan of the Northern Ireland [[Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure]] (DCAL) accepted that the 1999 Northern Ireland Life and Times Survey "did not significantly indicate that unionists or nationalists were relatively any more or less likely to speak Ulster Scots, although in absolute terms there were more unionists who spoke Ulster Scots than nationalists".
 
==History==
{{main|History of the Scots language}}
 
[[Scottish people|Scots]], mainly [[Middle Irish|Gaelic]]-speaking, had been settling in Ulster since the 15th century, but large numbers of [[Scots language|Scots]]-speaking Lowlanders, some 200,000, arrived during the 17th century following the 1610 [[Plantation of Ulster|Plantation]], with the peak reached during the 1690s.<ref name="Montgomery & Gregg 1997: 572">Montgomery & Gregg 1997: 572</ref> In the core areas of Scots settlement, Scots outnumbered English settlers by five or six to one.<ref>Adams 1977: 57</ref>
 
Literature from shortly before the end of the unselfconscious tradition at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries is almost identical with contemporary writing from Scotland.<ref>Montgomery & Gregg 1997: 585</ref> W G Lyttle, writing in ''Paddy McQuillan's Trip Tae Glesco'', uses the typically Scots forms ''kent'' and ''begood'', now replaced in Ulster by the more mainstream [[Anglic]] forms ''knew'', ''knowed'' or ''knawed'' and ''begun''. Many of the modest contemporary differences between Scots as spoken in Scotland and Ulster may be due to dialect levelling and influence from Mid Ulster English brought about through relatively recent demographic change rather than direct [[Language contact|contact]] with Irish, retention of older features or separate development.
 
Scots in Ulster has been influenced by contact with [[Mid Ulster English]], [[Hiberno-English]] and [[Irish language|Irish]]; the relationship has been two-way, with for example ''[[craic]]'' being a late 20th century gaelicisation. Mid Ulster English, the dialect of most people in Ulster, including those in the two main cities of [[Belfast]] and [[Derry]], represents a cross-over area between Ulster Scots and Hiberno-English; it is currently encroaching on the Ulster Scots area, especially in the Belfast commuter belt, and may eventually consume it.
 
==Status==
{{main|Scots language#Status}}
 
Enthusiasts such as Philip Robinson, author of "Ulster-Scots: A Grammar of the Traditional Written and Spoken Language"<ref>[http://www.ulsterscotsagency.com/03-grammerbook.asp Extracts from: 'Ulster-Scots: A Grammar of the Traditional Written and Spoken Language']</ref>, the Ulster-Scots Language Society<ref>[http://www.ulsterscotslanguage.com/en/language/ Ulster-Scots language Society]</ref> and supporters of an Ulster-Scots Academy<ref name="ulsterscotsacademy.org">[http://www.ulsterscotsacademy.org/ Ulster-Scots Academy Implementation group]</ref> are of the opinion that Ulster Scots is a language in its own right. That position has been criticised by the [[Ulster-Scots Agency]], a [[BBC]] report stating: "[The Agency] accused the academy of wrongly promoting Ulster-Scots as a language distinct from Scots."<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/7535681.stm Ulster-Scots academy 'misguided']</ref>. A position reflected in many of the Academic responses to the "Public Consultation on Proposals for an Ulster-Scots Academy"<ref>[http://www.dcalni.gov.uk/usaig_-_consultation_-_full_responses__53_-2.doc Public consultation on proposals for an Ulster Scots academy]</ref> [[Aodán Mac Póilin]] has written that "The case for Ulster-Scots being a distinct language, made at a time when the status of Scots itself was insecure, is so bizarre that it is unlikely to have been a linguistic argument."<ref>[http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/learning/history/stateapart/agreement/culture/support/cul2_c011.shtml Language, Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland]</ref>
 
Entusiastas como Philip Robinson, autor de "Ulster-Scots: A Grammar of the Traditional Written and Spoken Language"<ref>[http://www.ulsterscotsagency.com/03-grammerbook.asp Extracts from: 'Ulster-Scots: A Grammar of the Traditional Written and Spoken Language']</ref>, La sociedad del Escocés del Ulster ''Ulster-Scots Language Society''<ref>[http://www.ulsterscotslanguage.com/en/language/ Ulster-Scots language Society]</ref> y promotores como la ''Ulster-Scots Academy''<ref name="ulsterscotsacademy.org">[http://www.ulsterscotsacademy.org/ Ulster-Scots Academy Implementation group]</ref> son de la opinión de que el el Escocés del Ulster es una lengua por derecho propio. Esta posición ha sido criticada por la [[Ulster-Scots Agency]], un reportaje de la [[BBC]] report que afirma que: "La Agencia acusa a la academia de erróneamente promover el Escocés del como una lengua diferente del escicés."<ref>[http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/northern_ireland/7535681.stm Ulster-Scots academy 'misguided']</ref>. Una posición que se refleja en muchas de las respuestas de la Academia a las consultas públicas para la creación de una academia del Escocés del Ulster. <ref>[http://www.dcalni.gov.uk/usaig_-_consultation_-_full_responses__53_-2.doc Public consultation on proposals for an Ulster Scots academy]</ref> [[Aodán Mac Póilin]] has written that "The case for Ulster-Scots being a distinct language, made at a time when the status of Scots itself was insecure, is so bizarre that it is unlikely to have been a linguistic argument."<ref>[http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/learning/history/stateapart/agreement/culture/support/cul2_c011.shtml Language, Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland]</ref>
===Linguistic status===
 
==Véase también==
Among academic [[linguists]] Ulster Scots, along with other varieties of Scots, is treated as a [[dialect]] of [[English language|English]], for example Raymond Hickey<ref>Irish English: History and Present Day Forms, Cambridge University Press, 2007. pp.85-120</ref>, or by others as a [[variety (linguistics)|variety]] of the [[Scots language]], for example Dr. Caroline Macafee, who writes "Ulster Scots is [...] clearly a dialect of Central Scots."<ref>Macafee C (2001) Lowland Sources of Ulster Scots in Kirk J.M. & Ó Baoill D.P., Languages Links: The Languages of Scotland and Ireland, Cló Ollscoil na Banríona, Belfast. p.121</ref> And "Ulster Scots is one dialect of Lowland Scots, now officially regarded as a language by the [[European Bureau for Lesser-Used Languages]]."<ref>Dr. C. I. Macafee (ed.), ''A Concise Ulster Dictionary'', (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996), xxxvii.</ref>. The [[Northern Ireland]] [[Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure]] considers Ulster Scots to be "the local variety of the Scots language."<ref>[http://www.dcalni.gov.uk/index/language-cultural-diversity-r08/frequently_asked_questions.htm#q3 DCAL]</ref>
Using the criteria on ''[[Ausbausprache|Ausbau]]'' languages developed by the German linguist [[Heinz Kloss]], Ulster Scots could qualify only as a ''Spielart'' or 'national dialect' of Scots (cf. British and American English), since it does not have the ''[[Abstandsprache|Mindestabstand]]'', or 'minimum divergence' necessary to achieve language status through standardisation and codification. Of the four peripheral varieties of Scots - the others being Insular, [[Doric Dialect|Northern]] and Southern Scots - Ulster Scots is the only one whose traditional written form is commonly indistinguishable from the main Central Scots variety.<ref>Falconer, G. ''The Scots Tradition in Ulster'', Scottish Studies Review, Vol. 7/2, 2006. p.94</ref>
 
* [[Escocés (lengua germánica]]
===Legal status===
Ulster Scots is defined in an ''Agreement between the Government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland and the Government of Ireland establishing implementation bodies done at Dublin on the 8th day of March 1999'' in the following terms:
 
{{quote|"Ullans" is to be understood as the variety of the Scots language traditionally found in parts of Northern Ireland and Donegal.}}
 
The North/South Co-operation (Implementation Bodies) Northern Ireland Order 1999,<ref>[http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si1999/19990859.htm Statutory Instrument 1999 No. 859<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref> which gave effect to the implementation bodies incorporated the text of the agreement in its Schedule 1.
 
The declaration made by the United Kingdom Government regarding the [[European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages]] reads as follows:<ref>http://conventions.coe.int/Treaty/Commun/ListeDeclarations.asp?NT=148&CV=1&NA=&PO=999&CN=999&VL=1&CM=9&CL=ENG</ref>
 
{{quote|The United Kingdom declares, in accordance with Article 2, paragraph 1 of the Charter that it recognises that Scots and Ulster Scots meet the Charter's definition of a regional or minority language for the purposes of Part II of the Charter.}}
 
The definition from the North/South Co-operation (Implementation Bodies) Northern Ireland Order 1999 above was used in the 1 July 2005 Second Periodical Report by the United Kingdom to the Secretary General of the Council of Europe outlining how the UK meets its obligations under the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages.<ref>http://www.coe.int/t/e/legal_affairs/local_and_regional_democracy/regional_or_minority_languages/2_monitoring/2.2_States_Reports/UK_report2.pdf</ref>
 
The [[Good Friday Agreement]] (which does not refer to Ulster Scots as a "language") also recognises Ulster Scots as ''"part of the cultural wealth of the island of Ireland"'', and the Implementation Agreement established the cross-border [[Ulster-Scots Agency]] (''Tha Boord o Ulstèr-Scotch''). The legislative remit laid down for the agency by the North/South Co-operation (Implementation Bodies) Northern Ireland Order 1999 is: "the promotion of greater awareness and the use of Ullans and of Ulster-Scots cultural issues, both within Northern Ireland and throughout the island". The agency has adopted a mission statement: ''to promote the study, conservation, development and use of Ulster Scots as a living language; to encourage and develop the full range of its attendant culture; and to promote an understanding of the history of the Ulster-Scots people.''
 
The Northern Ireland (St Andrews Agreement) Act 2006<ref>http://www.england-legislation.hmso.gov.uk/acts/acts2006/ukpga_20060053_en_1 Northern Ireland (St Andrews Agreement) Act 2006</ref> amended the [[Northern Ireland Act 1998]] to insert a section (28D) entitled ''Strategies relating to Irish language and Ulster Scots language etc'' which inter alia laid on the Executive Committee a duty to "adopt a strategy setting out how it proposes to enhance and develop the Ulster Scots language, heritage and culture." This reflects the wording used in the [[St Andrews Agreement]] to refer to the enhancement and development of "the Ulster Scots language, heritage and culture"<ref>http://www.taoiseach.gov.ie/index.asp?locID=199&docID=2931 Documents released after talks at St Andrews</ref>
 
==Literature==
 
The earliest identified writing in Scots in Ulster dates from 1571: a letter from Agnes Campbell of County Tyrone to [[Elizabeth I of England|Elizabeth I]] on behalf of Turlough O'Neil, her husband. Although documents dating from the Plantation period show conservative Scots features, English forms started to predominate from the 1620s as Scots declined as a written medium.<ref name="Scots 2003">''The Edinburgh Companion to Scots'', ed. Corbett, McClure, Stuart-Smith, Edinburgh 2003, ISBN 0748615962</ref>
 
In Ulster Scots-speaking areas there was traditionally a considerable demand for the work of Scottish poets, often in locally printed editions. [[Alexander Montgomerie]]'s ''The Cherrie and the Slae'' in 1700, shortly over a decade later an edition of poems by [[Sir David Lindsay]], nine printings of [[Allan Ramsay (1686-1758)|Allan Ramsay]]'s ''The Gentle shepherd'' between 1743 and 1793, and an edition of [[Robert Burns]]' poetry in 1787, the same year as the Edinburgh edition, followed by reprints in 1789, 1793 and 1800. Among other Scottish poets published in Ulster were [[James Hogg]] and [[Robert Tannahill]].
 
[[Image:Plaque poetry Writers Square Belfast Robert Huddlestone.jpg|thumb|Poetry by [[Robert Huddlestone]] (1814-1887) inscribed in paving in Writers' Square, Belfast]]
This was complemented by Ulster ''[[Weaver Poets|rhyming weaver]]'' poetry, of which, some 60 to 70 volumes were published between 1750 and 1850, the peak being in the decades 1810 to 1840, although the first printed poetry (in the [[Burns stanza|Habbie stanza]] form) by an Ulster Scots writer was published in a [[broadsheet]] in Strabane in 1735.<ref>''Rhyming Weavers'', Hewitt, 1974</ref> These weaver poets looked to Scotland for their cultural and literary models and were not simple imitators but clearly inheritors of the same literary tradition following the same poetic and orthographic practices; it is not always immediately possible to distinguish traditional Scots writing from Scotland and Ulster. Among the ''rhyming weavers'' were [[James Campbell (poet)|James Campbell]] (1758-1818), [[James Orr (poet)|James Orr]] (1770-1816), [[Thomas Beggs]] (1749-1847), [[David Herbison]] (1800-1880), [[Hugh Porter (poet)|Hugh Porter]] (1780-1839) and [[Andrew McKenzie]] (1780-1839).
 
Scots was also used in the narrative by Ulster novelists such as [[W. G. Lyttle]] (1844-1896). Scots regularly appeared in Ulster newspaper columns, especially in Antrim and Down, in the form of pseudonymous social commentary employing a folksy first-person style.<ref name="Scots 2003"/>
 
The poet [[Seamus Heaney]] indicates the importance of Ulster Scots to his own writing in his poem 'A Birl for Burns':
 
{{quote|:From the start, Burns’ birl and rhythm,
:That tongue the Ulster Scots brought wi’ them
:And stick to still in County Antrim
:Was in my ear.
:From east of Bann it westered in
:On the Derry air.
:My neighbours ''toved'' and ''bummed'' and ''blowed'',
:They ''happed'' themselves until it ''thowed'',
:By ''slaps'' and ''stiles'' they ''thrawed'' and ''tholed''
:And ''snedded thrissles'',
:And when the ''rigs'' were ''braked'' and ''hoed''
:They’d ''wet their whistles''....}}
 
==Language planning==
[[Image:Multilingual sign Department Culture Leisure Arts Northern Ireland.jpg|thumb|The brand identity of the [[Department of Culture, Arts and Leisure]] in Northern Ireland as shown on this sign is displayed in [[English language|English]], [[Irish language|Irish]] and Ulster Scots<ref>''Fowkgates'' is a [[neologism]], the traditional Scots word being ''cultur'' [http://www.dsl.ac.uk/dsl/getent4.php?query=culture&sset=1&fset=20&printset=20&searchtype=full&dregion=entry&dtext=dboth] (Cf. ''pictur'' [http://www.dsl.ac.uk/dsl/getent4.php?plen=721&startset=29470508&query=PICTER&fhit=pictur&dregion=entry&dtext=snd#fhit]). The Scots for leisure is ''leisur(e)'' {{IPA|[ˈliːʒər]}}, ''aisedom'' (''easedom'' [http://www.dsl.ac.uk/dsl/getent4.php?plen=994&startset=10381976&query=EASEDOM&fhit=easedom&dregion=entry&dtext=snd#fhit]) is generally not used outwith the north-east of Scotland and is semantically different.</ref>]]
 
In 1992 the Ulster-Scots Language Society was formed for the protection and promotion of Ulster Scots, which some of its members viewed as a language in its own right, encouraging use in speech, writing and in all areas of life.
 
Within the terms of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages the British Government is obliged, among other things, to:
*Facilitate and/or encouragement of the use of Scots in speech and writing, in public and private life.
*Provide appropriate forms and means for the teaching and study of the language at all appropriate stages.
*Provide facilities enabling non-speakers living where the language is spoken to learn it if they so desire.
*Promote study and research of the language at universities of equivalent institutions.
 
The [[Ulster-Scots Agency]], funded by DCAL in conjunction with the [[Department of Community, Rural and Gaeltacht Affairs]], is responsible for promotion of greater awareness and use of Ullans and of Ulster-Scots cultural issues, both within Northern Ireland and throughout the island. The agency was established as a result of the Belfast Agreement of 1998.
 
In 2001 the Institute of Ulster Scots Studies was established at the [[University of Ulster]]<ref>[http://www.arts.ulster.ac.uk/ulsterscots/intro.html University of Ulster]</ref>
 
An Ulster Scots Academy has been planned with the aim of conserving, developing, and teaching the language of Ulster-Scots in association with native speakers to the highest academic standards.<ref name="ulsterscotsacademy.org"/>.
By the early part of the 20th century the literary tradition was almost extinct.<ref>Montgomery, Michael and Robert Gregg 1997. ‘The Scots language in Ulster’, in Jones (ed.), p. 572</ref> Much [[language revival|revival]]ist Ulster Scots appearing in official translations has little in common with traditional Scots [[orthography|orthographic]] practices as described in Grant and Dixon’s 1921 Manual of Modern Scots, instead they represent attempts to develop Ulster Scots as an autonomous written variety whose “common denominator is to be as different to English, and occasionally Scots, as possible”. This hotchpotch of obsolete words, neologisms, redundant 16th and 17th century spelling conventions and “erratic spelling which sometimes reflects everyday Ulster Scots speech rather than the conventions of either modern or historic Scots”. The resulting pastiche “is also often incomprehensible to the native speaker.”<ref>[http://www.bbc.co.uk/northernireland/learning/history/stateapart/agreement/culture/support/cul2_c013.shtml Language, Identity and Politics in Northern Ireland by Aodan Mac Poilin]</ref>. In 2000 Dr John Kirk described the "net effect" of that "amalgam of traditional, surviving, revived, changed, and invented features" as "artificial dialect", further adding "It is certainly not a written version of the vestigial spoken dialect of rural county Antrim, as its activists frequently urge, perpetrating the fallacy that it’s wor ain leid. (Besides, the dialect revivalists claim not to be native speakers of the dialect themselves!). The colloquialness of this new dialect is deceptive for it is neither spoken nor innate. Traditional dialect speakers find it counter–intuitive and false [...]" <ref>Kirk, John. M. (2000) “The New Written Scots Dialect in Present–day Northern Ireland” in Ljung, Magnus ed. Language Structure and Variation, Almqvist & Wiksell, Stockholm, 121–138. </ref>. Later, in 2005, Gavin Falconer questioned officialdom's complicity, writing: "The readiness of Northern Ireland officialdom to consign taxpayers’ money to a black hole of translations incomprehensible to ordinary users is worrying." <ref>Falconer, Gavin (2005) “Breaking Nature’s Social Union – The Autonomy of Scots in Ulster” in John Kirk and Dónall Ó Baoill eds., Legislation, Literature and Sociolinguistics: Northern Ireland, the Republic of Ireland, and Scotland, Belfast: Queen’s University, 48–59.</ref>. Recently produced Education materials, have, on the other hand, been evaluated more positively.<ref>[http://www.etini.gov.uk/ulster_scots.pdf an Evaluation of the Work of the Curriculum Development Unit for Ulster-Scots, Stranmillis University College]</ref>
 
==See also==
* [[Scots language]]
* [[Ulster]]
* [[UlsterLenguas Scotsdel peopleReino Unido]]
* [[Ulster Irish]]
* [[Dictionary of the Scots Language]]
* [[History of the Scots language]]
* [[Languages in the United Kingdom]]
* [[W.F. Marshall]]
* [[Mid-Ulster English]]
 
==NotesReferencias==
{{reflist}}
 
==ExternalEnlaces linksexternos==
 
* [http://www.ulsterscotsagency.com The Ulster-Scots Agency (Tha Boord o Ulstèr-Scotch)]
* [http://www.ulsterscotslanguage.com/ The Ulster-Scots Language Society]
* [http://www.Ullans.pro.ie website promoting Ullans to the Gaelic community of Ireland.]
 
{{GermanicLenguas languagesGermánicas}}
 
[[Category:Languages of Northern Ireland]]
 
[[bs:Ulster-škotski jezik]]
[[en: Ulster Scots]]
[[eo:Ulsterskota lingvo]]
[[fo:Ulster Skotskt]]