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== Tipos de implosivas ==
Las implosivas testimoniadas en las lenguas del mundo son:
* [[implosiva bilabial sonora]] {{IPA|[ɓ]}}
* [[implosiva dental sonora]] {{IPA|[ɗ̪]}}
* [[implosiva alveolar sonora]] {{IPA|[ɗ]}}
* [[implosiva retrofleja sonora]] {{IPA|[ᶑ]}} (not an IPA symbol)
* [[implosiva palatal sonora]] {{IPA|[ʄ]}}
* [[implosiva velar sonora]] {{IPA|[ɠ]}}
* [[implosiva uvular sonora]] {{IPA|[ʛ]}}
 
Las implosivas africadas o fricativas son extremadamente raras. De hecho, no hay símbolos AFI para las fricativas implosivas. En principio el "gancho" de implosiva puede ser añadido a las letras de fricativas sonoras, aunqe la labiodental podría ser confundida con la [[vibrante labiodental]] {{IPA|[ⱱ]}}.
 
=== Implosivas sordas ===
Las consonantes llamadas de manera genérica como "implosivas sordas", "implosivas con cierre glotal" o "eyectivas inversas" involucran un mecanismo de flujo de aire ligeramente diferente que es ingresivo glotálico.<ref name=Ball /> En este caso la glotis permanece cerrada, de tal manera que ninguna corriente pulmonar es posible. El AFI en un tiempo dedicó los sílbmolos {{IPA|<ƥ ƭ ƈ ƙ ʠ>}} a estos sonidos, pero dichos signos fueron desechados en 1993. Actualmente esos sonidos se transcriben como {{IPA|<ɓ̥ ɗ̥ ʄ̊ ɠ̊ ʛ̊>}} u occasionalmente {{IPA|<nowiki><pʼ↓ tʼ↓ cʼ↓ kʼ↓></nowiki>}}. Algunos autores usan un superíndice a la izquierda: {{IPA|p˂ t˂ c˂ k˂}}, pero esta notación no constituye un signo del AFI y además tiene otros usos.
 
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Implosives are commonplace among the Sub-Saharan [[African languages]], are widespread in Southeast Asia (e.g. [[Vietnamese language|Vietnamese]]), and are found in a few languages of the [[Amazon Basin]]. They are rarely reported elsewhere, but do occur in scattered languages such as the [[Mayan languages]] in North America, and [[Sindhi language|Sindhi]] in the [[Indian subcontinent]]. They appear to be entirely absent from [[European languages|Europe]] and [[Australian languages|Australia]], even from the exotic ceremonial language [[Damin]], which uses every other possible airstream mechanism. However, fully voiced stops are often slightly implosive, although this is not always described explicitly when there is no contrast with modal-voiced plosives. This is found around the world, from [[Maidu language|Maidu]] to [[Thai language|Thai]] to many [[Bantu languages]], including [[Swahili language|Swahili]].
 
[[Sindhi language|Sindhi]] has an unusually large number of contrastive implosives, with {{IPA|/ɓ ᶑ ʄ ɠ/}}.<ref name="SOWL" /><ref>Swahili has a similar {{IPA|/ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ/}}, but they do not contrast with voiced pulmonic stops as in Sindhi.</ref> Although Sindhi has a dental-retroflex distinction in its plosives, with {{IPA|/b d ɖ ɟ ɡ/}}, this contrast is neutralized in the implosives. A contrastive retroflex implosive {{IPA|/ᶑ/}} may however occur in [[Ngadha language|Ngad'a]], a language spoken in [[Flores]], Indonesia.<ref>Djawanai, Stephanus. (1977). A description of the basic phonology of Nga'da and the treatment of borrowings. ''NUSA linguistic studies in Indonesian and languages in Indonesia'', ''5'', 10-18</ref>
 
For more examples please refer to the articles on the individual implosives.
 
== Referencia ==
{{reflistlistaref}}
 
=== Bibliografía ===
* Maddieson, Ian. (1984). ''Patterns of sounds''. Cambridge studies in speech science and communication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
 
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[[Categoría:Consonantes implosivas| ]]
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