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[[Archivo:Pskov Veche Vasnetsov.jpg|thumb|275px|''Veche de [[República de Pskov|Pskov]]'', de [[Víktor Vasnetsov]].]]
'''Veche''' ([[Idioma ruso|ruso]]: вече, [[Idioma polaco|polaco]]: wiec, [[Idioma ucraniano|ucraniano]]: віче) fue una [[asamblea popular]] de los [[pueblos eslavos]] de la época [[medieval]], a menudo comparado con los [[parlamento]]s. La veche también puede ser comparada con la [[ekklesía]] de [[Atenas]] y otras [[polis]] de la antigua Grecia.
La palabra "veche/wiec" deriva de la raíz [[Protoeslavo|proto-eslava]] *''vēt-'', cuyo siginificado es "consejo" o "hablar". La [[Derivación (lingüística)|derivación]] [[semántica]] que da el significado a la palabra es paralela a la de la palabra "[[parlamento]]".
== Kievan Rus ==
The East Slavic veche/viche is thought to have originated in tribal assemblies of [[Eastern Europe]], thus predating the [[Kievan Rus|Rus' state]]. It is not clear whether it was a purely Slavic development or it was based on the model of the [[Varangian]] [[Thing (assembly)|Ting]]. The authority of the veche appears to have been stronger in the north, where the tradition of the [[Rus' Khaganate]] lived on.{{Citation needed|date=January 2010}}
The earliest mentions of ''veche'' in East European chronicles refer to examples in [[Belgorod Kievsky]] in 997, [[Novgorod Republic|Novgorod the Great]] in 1016 and in [[Kiev]] in 1068. The assemblies discussed matters of war and peace, adopted laws, and called for and expelled rulers. In Kiev, the veche was summoned in front of the [[Saint Sophia Cathedral in Kiev|Cathedral of St Sophia]].
In Ukraine, the town ''viche'' was simply a gathering of community members to inform everybody of important events (''vich-na-vich'' - eye-to-eye) and come up with a collective planning for the near future.
== Veche in the Novgorod and Pskov Republics ==
{{Main|Novgorod veche}} [[Image:veche bell.gif|thumb|Removal of the veche bell from Novgorod to Moscow in 1478.]]
The veche was the highest [[legislative|legislature]] and [[judicial authority]] in the [[Novgorod Republic|Republic of Novgorod]] until 1478, when the city was [[Conquest of Novgorod|brought under the direct control]] of Grand Prince [[Ivan III]] (1462-1505). In its "Little Brother", [[Pskov Republic|Pskov]] the veche continued until 1510, when that city was taken over by Grand Prince [[Vasily III of Russia|Vasilii III]] (1505-1533).
The traditional scholarship goes on to argue that a series of reforms in 1410 transformed the veche into something similar to the public assembly of [[Venice]]; it became the [[Commons]] or lower chamber of the parliament. Аn upper [[Senate]]-like [[Sovet gospod|Council of Lords]] (''sovet gospod'') was also created, with title membership for all former city magistrates (''[[posadnik]]s'' and ''[[tysyatsky]]s''). Some sources indicate that veche membership may have became full-time, and parliament deputies were now called ''vechniks''. Some of the more recent scholars call this interpretation into question.
The Novgorod assembly could be presumably summoned by anyone who rung the veche [[bell (instrument)|bell]], although it is more likely that the common procedure was more complex. The whole population of the city - boyars, merchants, and common citizens - then gathered at [[Yaroslav's Court]] or in front of the [[Saint Sophia Cathedral in Novgorod|Cathedral of Holy Wisdom]] (the latter called a ''Vladychnoe veche'' - "An Archbishop's Veche," since it was called in front of the cathedral). The veche bell was a symbol of republican sovereignty and independence and for this reason, Ivan III carted it off to [[Moscow]] when he took control of the city, to show that the old way of doing things was at an end.
Separate assemblies could be held in the [[kontsy|boroughs or "Ends"]] of Novgorod. In Pskov the veche assembled in the court of the Trinity cathedral.
== Poland ==
[[Archivo:Wiec Kazimierz Wielki.jpg|thumb|right|Una ''wiec'' durante el reinado de [[Casimiro III de Polonia|Casimiro III]] (quien reinó desde 1333 hasta 1370).]]
Según las ''[[ Cronicae et gesta ducum sive principum Polonorum|crónicas]]'' de [[Gallus Anonymus]], el legendario primer líder de [[Polonia]], [[Siemowit]], fue elegido por una ''wiec''. La idea de ''wiec'' derivó en 1182 como el [[parlamento]] polaco denominado ''[[Sejm]]''.
== References ==
* Michael C. Paul, "The Iaroslavichi and the Novgorodian Veche: A Case Study on Princely Relations with the Veche," ''Russian History'' (2004).
== Véase también ==
* [[Duma]] y [[Zemsky Sobor]] (parlamentos rusos)
<nowiki>[[Categoría:Historia de Polonia]]
[[Categoría:República de Nóvgorod]]
[[Categoría:Rus de Kiev]]
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