Diferencia entre revisiones de «Consonante implosiva»

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Las consonantes llamadas de manera genérica como "implosivas sordas", "implosivas con cierre glotal" o "eyectivas inversas" involucran un mecanismo de flujo de aire ligeramente diferente que es ingresivo glotálico.<ref name=Ball /> En este caso la glotis permanece cerrada, de tal manera que ninguna corriente pulmonar es posible. El AFI en un tiempo dedicó los sílbmolos {{IPA|<ƥ ƭ ƈ ƙ ʠ>}} a estos sonidos, pero dichos signos fueron desechados en 1993. Actualmente esos sonidos se transcriben como {{IPA|<ɓ̥ ɗ̥ ʄ̊ ɠ̊ ʛ̊>}} u occasionalmente {{IPA|<nowiki><pʼ↓ tʼ↓ cʼ↓ kʼ↓></nowiki>}}. Algunos autores usan un superíndice a la izquierda: {{IPA|p˂ t˂ c˂ k˂}}, pero esta notación no constituye un signo del AFI y además tiene otros usos.
 
== Ocurrencia en las lenguas del mundo ==
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Las implosivas son frecuentes en las [[lenguas de África|lenguas subsaharianas de África]], y se encuentran frecuentemente también en el suretes de Asia (por ejemplo aparecen en [[idioma vietnamita|vietnamita]]), además se encuentran en algunas pocas [[lengua amazónicas|lenguas de la cuenca amazónica]]. En otras regiones son poco frecuentes, aunque aparecen esporádicamente en ciertas regiones. Por ejemplo las [[lenguas mayenses]] de Mesoamérica, o el [[idioma sindhi|sindhi]] en el subcontinente indio. En Europa y Australia parecen estar totalmente ausentes.
==Occurrence in languages==
Implosives are commonplace among the Sub-Saharan [[African languages]], are widespread in Southeast Asia (e.g. [[Vietnamese language|Vietnamese]]), and are found in a few languages of the [[Amazon Basin]]. They are rarely reported elsewhere, but do occur in scattered languages such as the [[Mayan languages]] in North America, and [[Sindhi language|Sindhi]] in the [[Indian subcontinent]]. They appear to be entirely absent from [[European languages|Europe]] and [[Australian languages|Australia]], even from the exotic ceremonial language [[Damin]], which uses every other possible airstream mechanism. However, fully voiced stops are often slightly implosive, although this is not always described explicitly when there is no contrast with modal-voiced plosives. This is found around the world, from [[Maidu language|Maidu]] to [[Thai language|Thai]] to many [[Bantu languages]], including [[Swahili language|Swahili]].
 
Sin embargo, las oclusivas totalmente sonoras frecuentemente son ligeramente implosivas, aunque raramente se describa explícitamente este rasgo subfonémico, especialmente sino hay oposición del mecanismo de creación de corriente. Las oclusivas sonoras del [[idioma maidu|maidu]] o del [[idioma tai|tai]] son de este tipo, igual que las de muchas [[lenguas bantú]], incluyendo las del [[idioma suajiji|swahili]].
[[Sindhi language|Sindhi]] has an unusually large number of contrastive implosives, with {{IPA|/ɓ ᶑ ʄ ɠ/}}.<ref name="SOWL" /><ref>Swahili has a similar {{IPA|/ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ/}}, but they do not contrast with voiced pulmonic stops as in Sindhi.</ref> Although Sindhi has a dental-retroflex distinction in its plosives, with {{IPA|/b d ɖ ɟ ɡ/}}, this contrast is neutralized in the implosives. A contrastive retroflex implosive {{IPA|/ᶑ/}} may however occur in [[Ngadha language|Ngad'a]], a language spoken in [[Flores]], Indonesia.<ref>Djawanai, Stephanus. (1977). A description of the basic phonology of Nga'da and the treatment of borrowings. ''NUSA linguistic studies in Indonesian and languages in Indonesia'', ''5'', 10-18</ref>
 
[[SindhiEl language|Sindhi]]sindhi hastiene anun unusuallynúmero largeinusualmente numberelevado ofde contrastiveimplosivas implosives, withcontrastantes: {{IPA|/ɓ ᶑ ʄ ɠ/}}.<ref name="SOWL" /><ref>Swahili has a similar {{IPA|/ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ/}}, but they do not contrast with voiced pulmonic stops as in Sindhi.</ref>. AlthoughAunque Sindhiel hassindhi aposee dental-retroflexla distinctiondistinción inentre itsdentales plosivesy retroflejas en sus oclusivas sonoras, withsiendo estas {{IPA|/b d ɖ ɟ ɡ/}}, thiseste contrastcontraste isse neutralizedneutraliza inen thelas implosivesimplosivas. ASin contrastiveembargo retroflex implosive {{IPA|/ᶑ/}} may however occur inen [[Ngadhaidioma languagengadha|Ngadngad'a]], auna languagelengua spokenhablada inen la isla de [[Flores]], (Indonesia) sí posee una implosiva retrofleja distintiva {{IPA|/ᶑ/}}.<ref>Djawanai, Stephanus. (1977). A description of the basic phonology of Nga'da and the treatment of borrowings. ''NUSA linguistic studies in Indonesian and languages in Indonesia'', ''5'', 10-18</ref>
For more examples please refer to the articles on the individual implosives.
 
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Voiceless implosives are quite rare but are found in languages as varied as the Owere dialect of [[Igbo language|Igbo]] in Nigeria ({{IPA|/ƥ ƭ/}}), [[Krongo language|Krongo]] in Sudan, the Uzere dialect of [[Isoko language|Isoko]], the closely related [[Lendu language|Lendu]] and [[Ngiti language|Ngiti]] languages in the Democratic Republic of Congo, [[Seereer-Siin language|Seereer-Siin]] in Senegal ({{IPA|/ƥ ƭ ƈ/}}), and some dialects of the [[Poqomchi' language|Poqomchi’]] and [[Quiche language]]s in Guatemala ({{IPA|/ƥ ƭ/}}). [[Owere Igbo]] has a seven-way contrast among bilabial stops, {{IPA|/pʰ p ƥ bʱ b ɓ m/}}, and its alveolar stops are similar. It does not appear that the [[dorsal consonant|dorsal stops]] {{IPA|[ƙ ʠ]}} are attested in the literature as speech sounds.<ref>''Phonetic Symbol Guide,'' Geoffrey K. Pullum, William A. Ladusaw</ref> Some English speakers use a voiceless velar implosive {{IPA|[ƙ]}} to imitate the "glug-glug" sound of liquid being poured from a bottle, though others use a voiced implosive {{IPA|[ɠ]}}.<ref>Pike, ''Phonetics,'' 1943:40</ref>
 
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