Diferencia entre revisiones de «Mini calabazas y zapallos decorativos»

m
sin resumen de edición
m (Bot: Referencia y punto)
m
{{wikificar|t=20140821222856}}
Las calabazas y zapallos de pequeño tamaño y con fines decorativos se pueden dividir en dos grupos:
La siguiente es una presentación de las '''mini calabazas y zapallos decorativos'''.
:a) variedades de Halloween "mini", parecidas a las calabazas de Halloween y se consumen en esa fecha; y
:b) variedades de cáscara dura y pulpa no comestible, de colores y formas llamativos para uso decorativo durante el año.
 
Se pueden dividir en dos grupos, las variedades de Halloween "mini", que son parecidas a las calabazas de Halloween y se consumen en esa fecha; y las variedades de cáscara dura y pulpa no comestible, de colores y formas llamativos para uso decorativo durante el año. Los dos grupos pertenecen a ''Cucurbita pepo''. Una única variedad decorativa y también comestible de "mini Turbante" pertenece a ''Cucurbita maxima'',<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" /> especie de la que últimamente se propusieron variedades decorativas pequeñas de morfología variada.<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" />
 
Se pueden dividir en dos grupos, las variedades de Halloween "mini", que son parecidas a las calabazas de Halloween y se consumen en esa fecha; y las variedades de cáscara dura y pulpa no comestible, de colores y formas llamativos para uso decorativo durante el año. Los dos grupos pertenecen a ''Cucurbita pepo''. Una única variedad decorativa y también comestible de "mini Turbante" pertenece a ''Cucurbita maxima'',<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" /> especie de la que últimamente se propusieron variedades decorativas pequeñas de morfología variada.<ref name="small gourds congreso horticultura" />
 
Lecturas sobre variedades decorativas de ''Cucurbita pepo'' se encuentran en Bailey 1937,<ref name="Bailey 1937" /> Hutchins y Sando 1941<ref name="Hutchins y Sando 1941" /> (citados en Whitaker y Bohn 1950<ref name="Whitaker y Bohn 1950" />).
 
==Galería de imágenes==
Mini calabazas (zapallos) comestibles.
<gallery heights=220 widths=220>
Archivo:Cucurbita pepo mini baby miniature pumpkins edible small gourds different colors.jpg|''Cucurbita pepo'' tipo "mini pumpkin" o "baby pumpkin" o "miniature pumpkin", comestibles, pequeños, se ven como lámparas de Halloween pero son mucho más pequeños, populares desde la década de 1990.{{refn|group=cita|name=miniature pumpkins robinson|Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997<ref name="Robinson y Decker-Walters 1997" />) p. 79: "Miniature pumpkins of ''Cucurbita pepo'' (e.g. 'Jack Be Little', 'Munchkin', and 'Baby Bear'), with fruits looking like 'Jack O'Lantern' but much smaller, have become popular in recent years. They are used for decoration and are edible as well."}} Los hay naranjas, blancos, amarillos o alguna combinación de ellos, con bandas o sin bandas, y también pueden tener manchas verdes o ser enteramente verdes. 'Jack Be Little', 'Munchkin', 'Baby Bear' son ejemplos de cultivares.<ref group="cita" name="miniature pumpkins robinson" /> Pertenecen al grupo de cultivares ''Cucurbita pepo'' Grupo Pumpkin ya que se ajustan a la descripción formal (inamovible{{refn|group=cita|name=art3.5|Código Internacional de Plantas Cultivadas (Brickell et al. 2009<ref name="Brickell et al. 2009" />) "Art. 3.5. When a Group is divided or when two or more Groups are united or when the circumpscription of a Group is otherwise significantly re-defined in such a way that the resulting Group no longer has the same circumpscription a new name must be given for the resulting Group(s). Ex. 11. In the example given above, ''Solanum tuberosum'' Maincrop Group and ''S. tuberosum'' Red-skinned Group may be united to form a re-circumscribed ''Solanum tuberosum'' Maincrop Red-skinned Group. Ex. 12. ''Tulipa'' Dutch Breeders Group and ''T.'' English Breeders Group were united into the newly circumscribed ''T.'' Breeders Group (see J. F. Ch. Dix, ''A classified list of tulip names'' 4, 1958). Ex. 13. Recent breeding programmes in ''Begonia'' have led to the recognition of separate Groups within the existing Elatior Group. In due course these may be given new Group names instead of being referred to the Eliator Group as currently circumscribed. Ex 14. In the 1950s, a number of ''Magnolia'' hybrids were developed by D. T. Gresham and these have been referred to as Gresham Hybrids or as the Gresham Group. The inclusion of these hybrids in such a Group is unsatisfactory, the Group name being merely a statement of origin with individual members not showing characters in common. Two distinct Groups of Gresham's hybrids have, however, been recognized as Svelte Brunette Group and Buxom Nordic Blonde Group, each of which has a distinct set of characteristics (see J. M. Gardiner, ''Magnolias'' 118-120. 1989)".}}) del grupo: "''Cucurbita pepo'' de frutos esféricos, oblados u ovalados, redondos o aplanados en los extremos".{{refn|group=cita|name=pumpkin paris robinson|El autor del nombre, Paris (1986<ref name="Paris 1986" />): "1. ''Cucurbita pepo'' Pumpkin Group. Fruits spherical, oblate or oval, round or flattened at ends. Cultivars include: ''C. pepo'' 'Connecticut Field', ''C. pepo'' 'Jack O'Lantern', ''C. pepo'' 'Small Sugar', ''C. pepo'' 'Spookie'. ''C. pepo'' L. var. ''pepo'' Bailey." Si bien la descripción es inamovible,<ref group=cita name="art3.5" /> Robinson y Decker-Walters (1997<ref name="Robinson y Decker-Walters 1997" />) p. 78: "For ''Cucurbita pepo'', we will use the classification by Paris (1986), which is based primarily on fruit shape; his groupings of cultivares are: (...) Pumpkin: Fruit orange, round or oval."}} Son utilizados como decoración en Halloween, fecha para la que pueden convertirse en pequeñitas lámparas de Halloween esculpidas con dificultad debido al tamaño, o pueden dibujárseles caritas con marcador, o pueden ser consumidos en comidas de Halloween (por ejemplo rellenos), son "los preferidos de los más chicos".<ref>Victoriana Nursery Gardens. Pumpkin Seed 'Jack Be Little'. http://www.victoriananursery.co.uk/Pumpkin_Seed_Jack_Be_Little/</ref> Paris (1989<ref name="Paris 1989" />) llama a 'Little Gem' un "miniature pumpkin" debido al tamaño{{refn|group=cita|name="rare pumpkins Paris 1989"|Paris (1989<ref name="Paris 1989" />): "Some rare pumpkin (''Cucurbita pepo'' Pumpkin Group) cultivars have lignified rinds and even warts. Expression of lignified rind is conditioned by the dominant gene ''Hr'' (hard rind) and of warts by the dominant gene ''Wt''. Both ''Hr'' and ''Wt'' must be present for wartiness to develop (Schaffer et al. 1986a<ref name="Schaffer et al. 1986a" />). Primitive forms from Mexico, exemplified by PIs 442315 and 442325, have smooth but thick lignified rinds; these forms may be representative of an earlier stage in evolution under domestication, an early offshoot, or a separate line of domestication from the pumpkin line. The South African cultivar 'Little Gem' is a miniature pumpkin having a smooth, thin, but lignified rind. 'Nantucket', a pumpkin cultivar of the 19th century (Burr 1863,<ref name="Burr 1863" /> Goff 1888<ref name="Goff 1888" />), had warts. The reportedly very high quality of 'Little Gem' and 'Nantucket' indicates that these pumpkins are well advanced from primitive stocks. Their hard rinds would suggest that they were derived through hybridization between pumpkins and hard-rinded forms".}}, aquí se encuentra en la tabla del grupo Gema de cultivares sudafricanos de alta calidad para consumir inmaduros.
</gallery>
 
Mini calabazas no comestibles de ''Cucurbita pepo''.
 
{| class="wikitable"
! "Nombre comercial de semilla" de ''C. pepo''
! Cultivares
|-
| ''C. pepo'' decorativos pequeños, no comestibles
| align="right" |'Apple' ('Early Apple', 'Apple Squash')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=apple cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Apple (Early Apple, Apple Squash) - Vendor: Hovey. Characteristics: fruit obtusely conical to spherical, less than 3" diameter, rind pale yellow to white. 1847."}}, 'Autumn Wings' (='Swan')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=Autumn Wings (Swan) cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Autumn Wings (Swan) - Vendor: Rupp Seeds. Characteristics: dipper shaped fruit with bowl measuring 2 1/2 - 3" in diameter and a narrow neck up to 8" long; rind multicolored, warted, and "winged" (ridged); 100 day maturity. 2000."}}<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Baby Boo'<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Baby Pam'<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Bell' ('Bishop's Mitre of 1866')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=Bell bishcucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Bell (Bishop's Mitre of 1866) - Characteristics: fruit bell shaped, 3.5" long x 3.5" diameter at widest point near blossom end, obscurely ridged, rind yellow flecked with green patches. Bailey's The Garden of Gourds, 1937."}}, 'Bicolor Pear' ('Pear, Bicolor', =<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'Ringed Pear')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=pearbic cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Pear, Bicolor (Ringed Pear) - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: like Striped Pear but the stem end half is striped in shades of yellow and the blossom end in greens; Ringed Pear is a variant where the green portion forms only a rind instead of covering half the fruit. Similar: Striped Pear. 1885."}}<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Big Bell' (='Bell, Big')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=Bell, Big cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Bell, Big - Characteristics: fruit shaped similar to Bell but larger, 4-6" long, surface smooth or somewhat warty, rind cream colored or green. Bailey, 1937."}}, 'Brazilian Sugar' ('Brazilian', 'Brazilian Sugar Gourd')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=Brazilian Sugar (Brazilian, Brazilian Sugar Gourd) cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Brazilian Sugar (Brazilian, Brazilian Sugar Gourd) - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: fruit oval, 5-6" long x 4-5" diameter, obscurely ribbed, warty, rind orange, flesh yellow. 1885."}}, 'Crown of Thorns' (='Finger', ='Holy Gourd', ='Sugar Bowl')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=Crown of Thorns (Finger, Holy Gourd, Sugar Bowl) cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Crown of Thorns (Finger, Holy Gourd, Sugar Bowl) - Characteristics: fruit spherical to oblong, about 5" diameter, with five pairs of finger-shaped protuberances extending from the ridges at the stem end freely out towards the blossom end, surface typically smooth but sometimes warty, rind white to yellow. Bailey, 1937."}}, 'Der Wing'<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=Der Wing cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Der Wing - Vendor: Burpee. Characteristics: fruit oval, 5-6" long x 2.5-3" diameter, warty, rind white, flesh light yellow with greenish tinge; supposedly selected from Chinese germplasm. 1892."}}, 'Egg' (=<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'Nest Egg', =<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'White Egg', =<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'Goose Egg')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=egg cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Egg (Nest Egg, White Egg, Goose Egg) - Characteristics: fruit obovate, 2.5-3" long x 1.7-2.5" diameter at widest point near blossom end, rind typically all white but cultivars with green stripes may also be sold under this name. Burr's Field and Garden Vegetables of America, 1865."}}<font color=purple>*</font><ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /><font color=Khaki>*</font>,<ref name="Munro y Small 1997" /> 'Flat'{{refn|group=cita|name=some ornamental paris 1989|Paris (1989<ref name="Paris 1989" />): "Some of the ornamental gourd cultivars, such as 'Flat', 'Miniature Ball', and 'Pear', differ little from wild and feral ''C. pepo'' in their phenotypic characteristics, including small fruit size and striped fruit color pattern." }}<font color="ADFF2F">*</font>,<ref name="Unique" /> 'Flat Striped' (=<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'Broad Striped', =<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'White-striped Flat Fancy Gourd', orthographic error: 'Flat Stripped'<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" />)<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=flatstr cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Flat Striped (Broad Striped, White-striped Flat Fancy Gourd) - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: fruit short cylindrical, 1.5-2.5"long x 3-4" diameter, flattened to concave at ends, somewhat angular around circumference, rind dark green with lighter colored stripes or marbling, flesh bitter. 1885."}}<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Galeuses'<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Gremlin'<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Jack B Little'<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Ladle' ('Scoop')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=ladle cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Ladle (Scoop) - Characteristics: fruit elongated pear shaped, 6-8" long, often warty, rind often bicolored as in Bicolor Pear. Bailey, 1937."}}, 'Li’l Pum-KeMon'<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Little Boo'<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Miniature' (=ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'Miniature Ball')<ref group=cita name="some ornamental paris 1989" /><font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=miniature cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Miniature (Miniature Ball) - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: fruit oblate to nearly spherical, 1.5" long x 1.5-2" diameter, rind dark green variegated with pale green stripes. 1885."}}<font color=purple>*</font><ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /><font color="ADFF2F">*</font>,<ref name="Unique" /> 'Munchkin'<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Orange' (=<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'Orange Ball', =<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'Mock Orange')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=orangeb cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Orange (Orange Ball, Mock Orange) - Characteristics: fruit spherical to oblong, 3-4" diameter to 5" long, surface smooth, rind orange. Burr, 1865."}}<font color=purple>*</font><ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /><font color="ADFF2F">*</font>,<ref name="Unique" /> 'Orange Small'<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Pam'*<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Pear'<ref group=cita name="some ornamental paris 1989" /><font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Pineapple' (=<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'Early Pineapple', =<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'White Pineapple', =<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'White Turban')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=pinneaple cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Pineapple (Early Pineapple, White Pineapple, White Turban) - Vendor: Burpee. Characteristics: fruit 8" long x 8" diameter, spindle shaped with 5 pairs of prominent projections around the median, some inclined outwards and others towards the apex or base, rind white; supposedly selected from Chilean germplasm. 1884."}}, 'Shenot Crown of Thorns' (='Crown of Thorns, Shenot')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=Crown of Thorns, Shenot cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Crown of Thorns, Shenot - Breeder: Agway. Vendor: Hollar. Parentage: selected from variant grown at Shenot Farms. Characteristics: similar to Crown of Thorns but rind is brightly multicolored; 90-100 day maturity. 1982."}}, 'Spoon'<font color=purple>*</font><ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /><font color=Khaki>*</font>,<ref name="Munro y Small 1997" /> 'Spoon' (=<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'Bicolor Spoon', =<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'Small Spoon')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=spoon cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Spoon (Bicolor Spoon, Small Spoon) - Characteristics: similar to Bicolor Pear except that the stem-end neck is elongated and may be curved. Similar: Bicolor Pear. Bailey, 1937."}}='Spoon Bicolor'<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Striped Crown of Thorns' (='Crown of Thorns, Striped')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=Crown of Thorns, Striped cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Crown of Thorns, Striped - Vendor: Stokes. Characteristics: similar to Crown of Thorns but rind has green and white stripes. Similar: Crown of Thorns. 1985."}}<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Striped Pear' ('Pear, Striped')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=pearst cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Pear, Striped - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: like White Pear but rind is dark green with lighter colored stripes. Similar: White Pear. 1885"}}<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Warty' (=<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'Orange Warted', =<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'Warty Hardhead', =<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />'Warty Fancy Gourd')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=Warty cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Warty (Orange Warted, Warty Hardhead, Warty Fancy Gourd) - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: Fruit oblate to spherical to short oblong, 3-4" diameter, covered with numerous round protuberances or warts, rind orange, green, or rarely white, sometimes striped. 1885."}}<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'Wee-BLittle op'<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'White Ball'<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=Ball, White cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Ball, White - Vendor: Stokes. Characteristics: similar to Yellow Ball but with white rind. Similar: Yellow Ball. 1995."}}<font color=purple>*</font>,<ref name="Ferriol y Picó 2008" /> 'White Pear' ('Pear, White')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=pearw cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Pear, White - Vendor: Vilmorin. Characteristics: fruit pear shaped, 3-5" long, surface smooth, rind white. 1885."}}, 'Yellow Ball' (='Ball, Yellow')<font color=Red>*</font>{{refn|group=cita|name=Ball, Yellow cucurbitagourdDW1996|Decker-Walters (1996<ref name="Decker-Walters 1996 Cucurbita" />): "Ball, Yellow - Vendor: Stokes. Characteristics: rind dull yellow. Similar: Apple. 1982."}}
|-
|}
 
== Citas ==
 
{{listaref|group="cita"}}
 
== Referencias ==
Lecturas sobre variedades decorativas de ''Cucurbita pepo'' se encuentran en Bailey 1937,<ref name="Bailey 1937" /> Hutchins y Sando 1941<ref name="Hutchins y Sando 1941" /> (citados en Whitaker y Bohn 1950<ref name="Whitaker y Bohn 1950" />).
{{listaref|refs=
<ref name="Whitaker y Bohn 1950">Whitaker, Thomas W. y G. W. Bohn. The taxonomy, genetics, production and uses of the cultivated species of ''Cucurbita''. ''Economic Botany'' 4(1):52-81. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4251961</ref>
61 618

ediciones