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Griegos capadocios también conocidos como Capadocios griegos (en griego, Έλληνες-Καππαδόκες, Ελληνοκαππαδόκες, Καππαδόκες; en turco, Kapadokyalı Rumlar)[3]​ o simplemente Capadocios son una comunidad griega nativa de la región geográfica de Capadocia en el centro-oriente de Anatolia,[4][5]​ aproximadamente la provincia de Nevşehir y las provincias circundantes de la Turquía moderna. Había habido una presencia continua del pueblo griego en Capadocia desde la Antigüedad,[6]​ y las poblaciones indoeuropeas nativas de Capadocia, algunas de cuyas lenguas (cf. frigias) pueden haber estado íntimamente relacionadas con el griego, eran enteramente griegos en su lengua y cultura por lo menos durante el siglo V.[7]​ Siguiendo los términos del intercambio de poblaciones entre Grecia y Turquía de 1923, los naturales griegos restantes de Capadocia fueron obligados a salir de su patria y se reasentaron en la actual Grecia. Hoy en día sus descendientes se pueden encontrar en toda Grecia y la diáspora griega en todo el mundo.

Griegos capadocios
Έλληνες-Καππαδόκες
Kapadokyalı Rumlar
Cappadocian Greek dance.JPG
Cappadocian Greeks in traditional clothing, Greece
Idioma Idioma griego, Cappadocian Greek, Karamanli Turkish
Religión Ortodoxia Griega
Asentamientos importantes
1.º Bandera de Grecia
44,432 (Más de 50,000 incluyendo descendientes)[1]​ - around 50,000 (estimación de 1920)[2]​ hab.

Índice

Antecedentes históricosEditar

 
Mount Aktepe near Göreme and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia (UNESCO World Heritage Site)

Primeras migracionesEditar

 
Apolonio de Tiana (1st century ad), a Greek Neopythagorean philosopher del pueblo de Tyana en Capadocia

El área conocida como Capadocia hoy era conocida por los antiguos persas como Katpatuka, un nombre que los griegos alteraron como Kappadokia (Capadocia).[8]

Antes de que los griegos y la cultura griega llegaran a Asia Menor, el área fue controlada por otro pueblo proto-indoeuropeo, los hititas. Los griegos micénicos establecieron puestos comerciales a lo largo de la costa oeste alrededor de 1300 a. y pronto comenzaron colonias en la costa, difundiendo la cultura y el idioma helénicos. En el período helenístico, después de la conquista de Anatolia por Alejandro Magno, los colonos griegos comenzaron a llegar en las regiones montañosas de Capadocia en este tiempo.[9]​ Este movimiento de población griega de los siglos III y II AC solidificó una presencia griega en Capadocia. Como resultado, el griego se convirtió en la lingua franca de los nativos de la región. Se convertiría en la única lengua hablada de los habitantes de la región en tres siglos y lo seguiría siendo durante los próximos mil años.[7]

Después de la muerte de Alejandro Magno, Éumenes de Cardia, uno de los diádocos de Alejandro Magno, fue nombrado sátrapa de Capadocia, donde estableció asentamientos griegos y distribuyó ciudades a sus asociados.[10]​ Eumenes left behind administradores, jueces y los comandantes seleccionados de la guarnición en Capadocia. En los siguientes siglos los Reyes Griegos Seléucidas fundó muchos asentamientos griegos en el interior de Asia Menor,[10]​ y esta región sería popular para el reclutamiento de soldados. A diferencia de otras regiones de Asia Menor donde los griegos se establecían en las ciudades, la mayoría de los asentamientos griegos en Capadocia y otras regiones interiores de Anatolia eran pueblos.[11]​ Los reyes helenísticos harían nuevos asentamientos griegos en Capadocia y otras regiones circundantes para asegurar su dominio sobre esta región volátil,[12]​ bajo su dominio los asentamientos griegos aumentarían en el interior de Anatolia.[12]

En los siglos posteriores a la muerte de Alejandro Magno, Ariarates, hijo de un sátrapa persa que anteriormente controlaba Cappadocia, obtuvo el control de Capadocia y lo dejó a una línea de sus sucesores, que en su mayoría llevaban el nombre del fundador de la dinastía. Estos reyes comenzaron a casarse con los reinos helenísticos griegos vecinos, tales como los seléucidas. Durante su reinado las ciudades griegas comenzaban a aparecer en las regiones meridionales de Capadocia.[13]Ariarates V de Capadocia que reinó de 163 a 130 aC se considera que ha sido el más grande de los reyes de Capadocia.[14]​ Era predominantemente griego por descendencia, su padre Ariarates IV de Capadocia era mitad griego macedonio[13]​ y persa y su madre era Antiochis, era la hija del rey seléucida griego Antíoco III[15][16]​ de la dinastía seléucida.[17]​ En el siglo I a. C., las regiones de Capadocia habían sido devastadas por el rey armenio Tigranes el Grande, que había trasladado a un gran número de griegos cilicanos y capadocios a Mesopotamia[18]​ (geográficamente en el Irak moderno, en el este de Siria) y sureste de Turquía.)

Periodo romanoEditar

Arquelao quien era un príncipe cliente romano, fue el último en gobernar como rey de Capadocia. Fue un noble griego capadocio ,[19][20]​ possibly of descendencia macedonia y fue el primer rey de Capadocia de sangre completamente no-persa.[21]​ Él gobernó Capadocia durante muchos años antes de ser depuesto por Tiberio que tomó posesión de Cappadocia para Roma.[21]​ La región de Capadocia produjo algunos individuos griegos notables en la antigüedad, tales como Apolonio de Tiana (siglo I) que era un filósofo neo-pitagorense griego[22]​que se hizo bien conocido en el Imperio Romano y Areteo de Capadocia (81-138 AD) que era un griego nativo, nacido en Capadocia y se considera haber sido uno de los primeros cirujanos en la antigüedad.[23][24][25]​ Fue el primero en distinguir entre diabetes mellitus y diabetes insipidus y el primero en proporcionar una descripción detallada de un ataque de asma.[25][26]

 
Medieval Byzantine fresco in a Cappadocian rock-cut church at Göreme depicting Jesus Christ with the twelve apostles.

A finales de la antigüedad, los griegos de Capadocia se habían convertido en gran parte al cristianismo.[27]​ Fueron tan devotos al cristianismo que, en el siglo I dC, la región de Capadocia sirvió de bastión para el monasticismo cristiano[28]​ y fue de importancia importancia en la historia del cristianismo primitivo.[27]​ En los primeros siglos de la era común Capadocia produjo tres prominentes figuras patrísticas griegas, conocidas como los tres jerarcas.[29]​ Ellos fueron Basilio el Grande (c. 330-79), Obispo de Cesarea en Capadocia.[30]Gregorio Nacianceno (c.330-c.389 AD)[31]​ (conocido más tarde como San Gregorio el Teólogo) y Gregorio de Nisa (fallecido alrededor del año 394).[32]​ Estos Padres griegos de Capadocia del siglo IV[33]​ veneraba la antigua búsqueda cultural griega de la virtud, incluso estudiando Homero y Hesíodo y “se situaban en la tradición de la cultura griega”.[34]

Periodo bizantinoEditar

En el siglo V, las últimas lenguas nativas de Anatolia indoeuropeas dejaron de ser habladas, fueron reemplazadas por el griego koiné.[7]​ Al mismo tiempo, las comunidades griegas de Anatolia central se involucraban activamente en los asuntos del Imperio Bizantino y algunos capadocios griegos como Mauricio Tiberio (r.582-602) e Heraclius incluso sirvieron como emperadores.[35][36]

La región se convirtió en un importante distrito militar bizantino después del advenimiento del islam y la subsiguiente conquista musulmana de Siria condujo al establecimiento de una zona fronteriza militarizada (cf kleisoura and thughur) en la frontera de Capadocia. Esto duró desde mediados del siglo VII al siglo X durante las guerras árabe-bizantinas, inmortalizado en Digenis Akritas, la epopeya heroica del griego medieval en esta región de la frontera. Durante este período Cappadocia se convirtió en crucial para el imperio y produjo numerosos generales bizantinos, especialmente el clan Phokas, caudillos (see Karbeas de Tephrike), y la intriga, lo más importante es la herejía paulicista. Debido a que vivían en una región tan volátil, los griegos de Capadocia crearon ciudades subterráneas elaboradas en las formaciones volcánicas de la Capadocia oriental y se refugiaron en ellas durante tiempos de peligro. Los griegos de Capadocia se escondieron en estas ciudades subterráneas rocosas de muchos asaltantes durante el próximo milenio, desde los invasores árabes del siglo IX hasta los conquistadores turcos del siglo XI hasta los mongoles del siglo XV.[27][37][38]​ Todavía en el siglo XX, los griegos de Capadocia local todavía usaban las ciudades subterráneas como refugios (Greek: καταφύγια) de oleadas periódicas de persecución otomana.[39]​ Las más famosas de estas antiguas ciudades subterráneas se encuentran en los pueblos griegos de Capadocia de Anaku-Inegi (Ανακού) y Malakopi-Melagob (Μαλακοπή). Los griegos fueron removidos de estas aldeas en 1923, y ahora se conocen como Derinkuyu y Kaymakli. Estas ciudades subterráneas tienen cámaras que se extienden a profundidades de más de 80 metros.[27]

 
Gregorio Nacianceno (c.330-c.389 AD).

En la Edad Media, Capadocia tenía cientos de asentamientos y iglesias bizantinas de corte de roca fueron talladas en las formaciones volcánicas de la Capadocia oriental y decoradas con iconos pintados, escritura griega y decoraciones. Más de 700 de estas iglesias han sido descubiertas[40]​ y data entre el siglo VI y el siglo XIII,[27]​ muchos de estos monasterios e iglesias continuaron siendo utilizados hasta el intercambio de población entre Grecia y Turquía en la década de 1920.[28]​ Los habitantes griegos de estos distritos de Capadocia fueron llamados trogloditas. En el siglo X, Leo el Diácono registró un viaje a Capadocia realizado por Nicéforo Focas, en sus escritos menciona que sus habitantes fueron llamados trogloditas, en vista del hecho de que "pasaban bajo tierra en agujeros, hendiduras y laberintos, como en madrigueras y madrigueras".[41]​ Los bizantinos reinstalaron el control de Capadocia entre los siglos VII y XI, durante este período las iglesias fueron talladas en acantilados y rocas en la región de Göreme y Soğanlı.[38]​ En la Edad Media los griegos de Capadocia enterrarían a sus figuras religiosas en y alrededor de monasterios. En los últimos años se han encontrado cuerpos momificados en los monasterios griegos abandonados de Capadocia, y muchos, incluyendo cuerpos de bebés momificados, se exhiben en el Museo Arqueológico de Nigde. Un cadáver momificado bien preservado de una joven cristiana es popular entre los turistas; la momia de pelo rubio se cree que es una monja y data de la época bizantina, del siglo VI al siglo XI.[42][43]​ Fue descubierto en una capilla griega del siglo VI en el valle de Ihlara en Capadocia.[44]​ Durante el siglo X, el Imperio Bizantino había empujado hacia el este hacia tierras anteriormente dominadas por los árabes, incluyendo la mayor parte de la Armenia, y había reasentado a miles de armenios en varias regiones de Capadocia. Este cambio de población intensificó las tensiones étnicas entre los griegos y los recién llegados armenios en Capadocia,[45]​ y dejó a Armenia en gran parte desprovisto de defensores nativos.[45]

Capadocia turcaEditar

 
Basil Giagoupes (Bασίλειος Γιαγούπης), un señor feudatorio griego capadocio del siglo XIII que tenía el título de general de la corte (amir arzi) en el ejército de Mesud II, sultán del Sultanato Selyúcida de Rüm.

En 1071 DC, el Imperio Bizantino sufrió una considerable derrota en el batalla de Manzikert en Armenia.[46][47]​ Esta derrota abriría el interior de Anatolia a la invasión por turcos selyúcidas del Asia central que invadiría la mayor parte del Asia Menor bizantina.[46]​ Esto comenzó la transformación de Asia Menor de una región enteramente cristiana y abrumadoramente poblada por griegos a un centro musulmán y turco principalmente.[46][47]​ Varias familias reales Armenias, el cual incluía a Gagik de Ani y Adom y Abu Sahl de Vaspurakan, buscaban venganza en la población ortodoxa griega local tras las persecuciones de los armenios y monofisitas siríacos por los bizantinos.[48]​ Usaron la oportunidad proporcionada por la conquista de los selyúcidas para atacar a los griegos, torturaron y luego asesinaron al metropolitano ortodoxo griego de Kayseri y saquearon ricos estados de propiedad griega.[48]​ Los terratenientes griegos locales eventualmente mataron al real armenio Gagik.[48]

En el siglo XII toda Anatolia fue invadida por tribus turcomanas del Asia Central,[7]​ estos nómadas invasores habían despejado muchas regiones de Anatolia de los griegos nativos.[49]​ La población griega anatolia disminuyó rápidamente bajo el dominio turco debido a las conversiones masivas al Islam, al sacrificio o al exilio a territorios griegos en Europa.[50]​ Antes de la migración turca a Anatolia, los griegos, así como un menor número de armenios, sirios y georgianos eran todos cristianos, por el siglo 15 más del 90% de Anatolia era musulmana, según algunos investigadores[51]​ en gran parte debido a las conversiones cristianas al Islam. Muchos líderes griegos bizantinos también fueron tentados a convertirse al Islam para unirse a la aristocracia otomana turca,[51]​ aunque a comienzos del siglo XX la proporción de cristianos en la población de Anatolia era de más del 20%.[52]​ Durante los siglos de dominio turco en Asia Menor, muchos griegos y otros pueblos de Anatolia, como los armenios y kurdos, adoptaron la lengua turca, se convirtieron al Islam y llegaron a ser identificados como turcos.[53]​ A pesar de la turbulencia en Anatolia, en el siglo XIII los griegos de Capadocia, Licaonia y Panfilia permanecieron numerosos, incluso bajo la presión de los nómadas de Turkmenistán, posiblemente constituyendo mayorías en algunos centros urbanos.[49]​ Durante este período caótico hay evidencia de que algunos griegos capadocios nativos se habían unido a los nómadas turcos invasores. Algunos incluso logran elevarse a niveles de prominencia en el selyúcida Sultanato de Rüm, como Basil Giagoupes (Bασίλειος Γιαγούπης), un acaudalado señor feudatorio griego capadocio de un distrito fuertemente griego que tenía el título de general de la corte (amir arzi) en el ejército del sultán selyúcida de Konya, Mesud II.[54]​ Él dedicó una iglesia en el valle de Peristrema (Belisirma) donde su retrato, que fue pintado de la vida todavía sobrevive hasta hoy. Los artistas griegos de Capadocia del siglo XIII eran renombrados por sus pinturas naturalistas y fueron empleados a través del Imperio Selyúcida .[55]

 
Iglesias ortodoxas griegas abandonadas talladas en un sólido acantilado de piedra, Museo Abierto de Göreme, Capadocia, Nevşehir/Turquía.

A lo largo del siglo XV, los turcos otomanos conquistaron Capadocia de los turcos selyúcidas, el campo capadocio siguió siendo en gran parte poblado por griegos, con una población armenia más pequeña incluso después de la conquista otomana.[38]​ Durante el reinado del sultán otomano Murad III (1574 a 1595), la región de Capadocia se convirtió en gran parte turcomana en cultura y lenguaje a través de un proceso gradual de aculturación,[56][57]​ como resultado, muchos griegos de Capadocia habían aceptado la lengua vernácula turca y más tarde se conocerían como 'Karamanlides'. Este nombre deriva de la región de Capadocia, que los turcos llamaron Karaman en honor del jefe turco Karamanoglu, aunque los griegos de Capadocia siguieron llamando a la región ‘Laranda’, su antiguo nombre griego.[58]​ Estos griegos turcoparlantes vivían principalmente en la región de Karamania, aunque también había comunidades importantes en Constantinopla y en la región del Mar Negro.[59][60]​ Los griegos de Capadocia que vivían en las aldeas remotas menos accesibles de Capadocia seguían siendo de habla griega y cristianos, ya que estaban aislados y, en consecuencia, menos afectados por la rápida conversión de los distritos fronterizos al Islam y al habla turca.[61][62]​ Los capadocios griegos conservaron los nombres griegos originales de muchas regiones de Capadocia que fueron renombradas nombres turcos durante la época otomana, como la ciudad conocida como ‘Hagios Prokopios’ en la Edad Media, y renombrado ‘Urgup’ por los turcos todavía era llamada 'Prokopion' por los griegos locales de principios del siglo XX.[63]

 
Frescoes in St. John (Gülşehir) Church, Cappadocia, Turkey.

Aunque los Karamanlides abandonaron el griego cuando aprendieron el turco siguieron siendo ortodoxos griegos cristianos y continuaron usando el alfabeto griego.[64]​ Imprimieron manuscritos en lengua turca utilizando el alfabeto griego, que se hizo conocido como ‘Karamanlidika’.[60]​ Este no fue un fenómeno que se limitó a los Karamanlides griegos de Capadocia, ya que muchos de los armenios que vivían en Capadocia también eran lingüísticamente turcos, aunque siguieron siendo cristianos apostólicos armenios (ortodoxos), hablaron y escribieron en lengua turca, aunque siguen usando el alfabeto armenio.[60]​ Algunos habitantes judíos del Imperio Otomano también fueron turcomanos y, aunque conservaron su religión, también escribieron en idioma turco, pero utilizando alfabeto hebreo.[65]​ Los habitantes de Capadocia griegos, armenios y las minorías judías del Imperio Otomano habían creado literaturas greco-turcas, armenas-turcas y judeo-turcas mediante el desarrollo de sus propias tradiciones escritas.[65]​A pesar de que habían perdido todo el conocimiento de sus propios idiomas después de haber sido turquificados,[60]​ la mayoría de Karamanlides y muchos armenios turcoparlantes finalmente revivieron sus lenguas nativas originales.[66]​ Mientras que la mayoría de los griegos de Capadocia habían permanecido como cristianos ortodoxos, un número significativo de karamanlides incluso se convirtieron al Islam durante este período.[56]​ Al igual que con otras comunidades griegas, estos conversos al Islam fueron considerados "turcos",[67]​ como musulmán era sinónimo de ser turco para los griegos del Imperio Otomano. Los escritores griegos describirían erróneamente a los conversos griegos al Islam como “Tourkeuoun” (Τουρκεύουν) o convertirse en turco.[67]​ Los visitantes europeos a los reinos de los sultanes también etiquetarían subjetivamente a cualquier musulmán como "turco" independientemente de su lengua materna..[68]​ Los griegos creían que al convertirse al Islam y 'perder' su religión cristiana original, el individuo también salía de la comunidad nacional griega. Esta forma de pensar fue incluso popular años después de la disolución del Imperio Otomano.[67]

Muchos cambios de población tuvieron lugar en el centro de Anatolia durante el período del dominio otomano.[69]​ Posterior a la conquista otomana de Chipre de 1571, el sultán otomano Selim I decidió transferir a los griegos de Capadocia, en particular de la región de Kayseri, a Chipre.[70][71]​ Durante este período, el arquitecto Sinan, nacido de padres griegos y oriundo de Capadocia, escribió una carta al sultán pidiendo que su familia se salvara de esta transferencia de población.[71][72]​ Durante la era otomana, los griegos de Capadocia migrarían a Constantinopla y otras grandes ciudades para hacer negocios. En el siglo XIX, muchos eran ricos, educados y occidentalizados. Los adinerados hombres de negocios griegos de Capadocia construyeron grandes mansiones de piedra en regiones de Capadocia como Karvali (la moderna Güzelyurt), muchas de las cuales todavía se pueden ver hoy.[73][74]​ Los griegos de Capadocia escribieron las primeras novelas publicadas en el Imperio Otomano en el siglo XIX, usando el alfabeto griego y el idioma turco..[57]​ Los griegos de Capadocia de diferentes regiones se especializarían en una profesión particular, como el comercio de caviar.[75]Demetrius Charles Boulger más tarde describe su personaje de trabajo: "Cada pueblo está conectado con algún gremio particular en Constantinopla: uno suministra bakals o pequeños tenderos, otros vendedores de vino y licores, otros secadores de pescado, otros fabricantes de caviar, otros porteadores, etc.".[76]​’

ModernidadEditar

 
Una boda griega capadocia en Kermira (Germir), Kayseri, Cappadocia, en 1902.
 
A passage in the Underground City

A principios del siglo XX, los asentamientos griegos seguían siendo numerosos y extendidos a lo largo de la mayor parte de la Turquía actual.[77][78]​Las provincias de Capadocia y Licaonia tenían un gran número de asentamientos griegos y poblaciones considerables en los centros urbanos como Kayseri, Nigde, y Konya.[77]​ Los griegos de Capadocia de los siglos XIX y XX fueron reconocidos por la riqueza de sus cuentos y la preservación de su lengua griega antigua.[79]

Las ciudades subterráneas continuaron siendo usadas como refugio (Cappadocian Greek: καταφύγια) de los gobernantes musulmanes turcos.[39]​Tan tarde como el siglo XX los locales todavía estaban utilizando las ciudades subterráneas para escaparse de las olas periódicas de persecución otomana.[39]​ Dawkins, un lingüista de Cambridge que realizó una investigación sobre los nativos griegos de Capadocia en la zona desde 1909-1911, registró que en 1909,

cuando llegó la noticia de las recientes masacres de Adana, una gran parte de la población de Axo se refugió en estas cámaras subterráneas y durante algunas noches no se atrevió a dormir por encima de la tierra.

Los estudiosos que pasaron por Capadocia durante el siglo XIX describieron a los griegos de Capadocia y sus hábitos. En 1838, el erudito británico Robert Ainsworth escribió que "los griegos capadocios son, en general, agradables y sin reservas en sus modales, y su conversación indica un grado muy alto de inteligencia y civilización, donde hay tan pocos libros y tan poca educación y por consiguiente, poco aprendizaje ".[80]​ Sir Charles William Wilson, cónsul general británico en Anatolia de 1879 a 1882, describió su carácter:

Los griegos de Capadocia tienen una reputación en Asia Menor por su actividad comercial y energética; hay pocos pueblos en los que un comerciante de Kaisariyeh no se encuentra; y la naturaleza rocosa del país impulsa incluso a las clases más pobres a buscar su vida en otro lugar. Quizás el rasgo más interesante en el carácter de estos griegos es su intenso amor por su país natal; la gran ambición de cada hombre es ganar suficiente dinero para permitirle construir una casa y establecerse en su amada Capadocia. Los jóvenes se van a Constantinopla por unos años, y luego vuelven para casarse y construir una casa; Un par de años de vida matrimonial ven el fin de sus ahorros, y tienen que volver a visitar la capital, a veces permaneciendo allí diez o quince años, para ganar lo suficiente para mantenerse a sí mismos y a sus esposas por el resto de sus vidas .. La gente no tiene aspiraciones políticas marcadas como las que prevalecen entre los griegos de la costa oeste; sueñan, es cierto, con un nuevo Imperio bizantino, pero cualquier simpatía que puedan obtener de un amor que absorbe el dinero y las ganancias se dedica al ruso. El distrito al sur de Capadocia, en el que San Gregorio de Nazianzus ministró una vez, muestra muchos signos de creciente prosperidad; Se está construyendo, y la gente está desocupada, por las casas sobre tierra, las aldeas subterráneas, a las que deben preservar su fe y su idioma. Estas aldeas son conocidas por nombres griegos y turcos; en algún griego lo hablan musulmán y cristiano, en otros, una jerga greco-turca, y en otros solo en turco; y esta mezcla se encuentra incluso en las iglesias, donde los comentarios descriptivos de las imágenes sagradas a menudo están escritos en turco, en caracteres griegos.[81]

Persecución y cambio de poblaciónEditar

En los primeros años del siglo XX, la región de Capadocia era todavía habitada por los griegos capadocios cristianos así como turcos musulmanes[41]​ y también comunidades de armenios y kurdos. Al comienzo de la Primera Guerra Mundial, los griegos de Anatolia fueron sitiados por los Jóvenes Turcos.[82]​ Miles de griegos fueron masacrados,[82]​ aproximadamente 750.000 griegos anatolios fueron masacrados en un acto de genocidio y 750,000 fueron exiliados.[78][83]​ Los griegos fueron objeto de ataques antes y junto a los armenios y asirios. Las muertes de griegos jónicos y capadocios solamente totalizaron 397.000, mientras que las muertes de griegos pónticos numeraron a 353.000 personas.[78]​ El funcionario turco Rafet Bey estuvo activo en el Genocidio de los Griegos del interior de Anatolia, en noviembre de 1916 declaró: "Debemos acabar con los griegos como lo hicimos con los armenios ... hoy envié escuadras al interior para matar a todos los griegos a la vista ..."[84]​ Durante la Guerra Greco-Turca (1919–1922) un número incontable de griegos fueron deportados por los turcos al desierto de Mesopotamia donde muchos perecieron.[84]​ El 31 de enero de 1917, el Canciller Theobald von Bethmann-Hollweg de Alemania informó que:

Las indicaciones son que los turcos planean eliminar el elemento griego como enemigos del estado, como lo hicieron antes con los armenios. La estrategia implementada por los turcos es desplazar a las personas al interior sin tomar medidas para su supervivencia exponiéndolas a la muerte, el hambre y la enfermedad. Los hogares abandonados son saqueados y quemados o destruidos. Lo que se hizo a los armenios se repite con los griegos.[84]

En 1924, después de vivir en Capadocia durante miles de años,[6]​los restantes griegos de Capadocia fueron expulsados a Grecia como parte del intercambio de población entre Grecia y Turquía definido por el Tratado de Lausana,[5]​ los descendientes de los griegos capadocios que se habían convertido al Islam no fueron incluidos en el intercambio de la población y permanecieron en Capadocia,[85]​ algunos todavía hablando la lengua griega capadocia. Muchas ciudades capadocias fueron afectadas grandemente por la expulsión de los griegos incluyendo Mustafapasa (Sinasos), Urgup, Güzelyurt y Nevsehir ya que los griegos constituían un porcentaje significativo de la población de los pueblos.[73]​ Los griegos de Capadocia fueron llevados a la ciudad costera de Mersin para ser enviados a Grecia. Muchos perderían todas sus pertenencias debido a funcionarios corruptos y saqueadores.[73]​ Los griegos de Capadocia que emigraron de Cappadocia fueron substituidos por los musulmanes que emigraron de la Grecia continental, principalmente de Thrace; algunos de estos musulmanes eran griegos (ver griegos musulmanes), aunque la mayoría eran de origen eslavo, turco y gitano. Muchas de las iglesias griegas de Capadocia se convirtieron en mezquitas después de que los griegos se fueron en el intercambio de la población de los años 20. Estos incluyen la Iglesia de San Gregorio conocida hoy como "Buyuk Kilise Camii (Gran Iglesia Mezquita)".[86]

 
Cappadocian Greek athletic seminary team "Argaios" in Kayseri (1907). The team was named after Mt. Argaios, a famous volcano in Cappadocia.

Después del intercambio de población, todavía existía una gran comunidad de griegos capadocios que vivían en Turquía, en Constantinopla,[60]​ they had settled there during the Ottoman era and formed enclaves of their native communities,[59]​ la mayoría de los cuales también emigraron a Grecia después de los disturbios del pogromo de Estambul anti-griegos de 1955. A su llegada a la Grecia continental, muchos griegos capadocios se asentaron en aldeas similares a sus aldeas capadocias originales; los nuevos asentamientos fueron nombrados después de que las ciudades y pueblos quedaron en Capadocia, con la adición de la palabra "Nea" (Nuevo). Por ejemplo, los griegos capadocios de Sinasos (actual Mustafapaşa cerca de Ürgüp) quienes se establecieron en la parte norte de la isla de Eubea en Grecia llamaron a su nuevo asentamiento Nea Sinasos "Nuevo Sinasos". Otros ejemplos incluyen Nea Karvali en el norte de Grecia, y Neo Prokopi en el centro.[1]​ Las regiones de Grecia con asentamientos significativos de griegos de Capadocia incluyen las ciudades de Karditsa, Volos, Kilkis, Larisa, Chalkidiki, Kavala, Alexandroupoli y Tesalónica.[87]​ Hoy en día los descendientes de los griegos de Capadocia se pueden encontrar en toda Grecia, así como en países de todo el mundo, particularmente en Europa occidental, América del Norte y Australia como parte de la diáspora griega.

La región moderna de Capadocia es famosa por las iglesias excavadas en acantilados y paredes de roca en los valles de Göreme y Soğanlı.[38]​ La región es popular entre los turistas.,[40]​ muchos de los cuales visitan las ciudades subterráneas abandonadas, casas e iglesias griegas talladas y decoradas por los griegos de Capadocia hace siglos. La antigua ciudad griega de Güzelyurt (Karvali) se ha hecho popular entre los turistas que visitan las mansiones de piedra abandonadas construidas hace siglos por los ricos empresarios griegos de Capadocia.[74]​ Hoy en día, más de 700 iglesias ortodoxas griegas.[40]​ y más de treinta capillas talladas en la roca, muchas con íconos pintados en conserva, escritos griegos y frescos, algunos de la iconoclasta bizantina[38]​ that date back as far as the 6th century, can still be seen.[27]​ A partir de 1985, estas iglesias griegas de las cuevas fueron designadas como Patrimonio de la Humanidad por la UNESCO.[88]

IdiomaEditar

 
Anatolian Greek dialects until 1923. Demotic in yellow. Pontic in orange. Capadocio en verde, con los puntos verdes que indican pueblos de habla griega de Capadocia individuales en 1910.[89]
 
Greek inscription in Mustafapasa, Cappadocia.

Los griegos de Capadocia tradicionalmente hablaban un dialecto de la lengua griega conocida como griego capadocio.El griego capadocio se separó de los otros dialectos Bizantino griego, comenzando con las conquistas turcas de Asia Menor Central en los siglos XI y XII y desarrollando así varias características radicales, como la pérdida del género para los sustantivos.[90]​ Sin embargo, después de haber sido aislada de las conquistas de los cruzados y de la influencia veneciana posterior de la costa griega, conservó los términos griegos clásicos para muchas palabras que fueron substituidas por las lenguas románicas en griego demótico.[90]​ Después de siglos de dominio otomano la lengua turca comenzó a emerger como la lengua dominante de Capadocia. Muchos griegos comenzaron a hablar turco como segunda lengua y se volvieron bilingües; este fue el caso con los “Kouvoukliotes” que siempre hablaban griego y hablaban turco con un fuerte acento griego,[91]​ y había griegos de Capadocia que sólo hablaban el idioma turco y habían renunciado al uso del griego siglos antes, conocido como los Karamanlides.[64]​ A principios del siglo XX, el idioma griego de Capadocia aún tenía una fuerte presencia en Gülşehir (antes Arabison/Arapsu) al noroeste de Nevsehir, y en la región grande hacia el sur tan abajo como Niğde y Bor.[27]​ El griego también se hablaba todavía en Silli al noroeste de Konya, en Pharasa[27]​ y otras aldeas en comunidades aisladas en el interior de Turquía central antes del Genocidio de 1915 y subsecuentes transferencias de población.[83]​ Muchos griegos de Capadocia abandonaron completamente el griego cuando aprendieron turco, aunque en las regiones occidentales de Capadocia muchos griegos todavía conservaron su lengua materna. John Robert Sitlington Sterrett viajó a través de Capadocia en 1884 y notó: "Melegobi es un pueblo grande y floreciente, habitado casi exclusivamente por griegos de habla griega. Los griegos son numerosos a través de la parte occidental de Capadocia, y generalmente se aferran a su lengua con gran tenacidad, un hecho digno de notar, en la medida en que los griegos en otras partes de Asia Menor hablan sólo turco. Los casos de ciudades de habla griega son Niğde, Gelvere, Melegobi (Μελοκοπια), y Ortakieui en Soghanli Deressi."[92]​ En el siglo XX, los eruditos y los lingüistas que estudian a los griegos de Capadocia observaron que muchas aldeas griegas capadocias habían comenzado a substituir su lengua griega nativa por el idioma turco. Durante el siglo XIX, el intelectual británico John Pinkerton fue informado por los griegos de habla turca que los gobernantes turcos anteriores de Anatolia les habían hecho perder el conocimiento de la lengua griega,[93]​ Pinkerton reported that:

..."las crueles persecuciones de sus maestros mahometanos han sido la causa de su actual estado degradado de ignorancia, incluso con respecto a su lengua materna; para que hubo un tiempo en que sus maestros turcos prohibieron estrictamente a los griegos en Asia Menor incluso de hablar el idioma griego entre ellos, y que cortaron las lenguas de algunos, y castigaron a otros con muerte, que osaron desobedecer a su bárbaro comando . Es un hecho indiscutible que el lenguaje de sus opresores ha prevalecido casi universalmente y que en gran parte de Anatolia el culto público de los griegos se hace ahora en lengua turca. Las siguientes obras, en la lengua turca, pero todas en el carácter griego, dan otra prueba de lo que he dicho...” (John Pinkerton, 1817)[93]

En la década de 1920, cuando los griegos de Capadocia llegaron a Grecia, el griego capadocio hablado por ellos era apenas inteligible con el griego demótico utilizado en la Grecia continental, ya que había sido cortado del resto del mundo de habla griega durante siglos. Los griegos de Capadocia estaban más lingüísticamente turquificados, entonces los griegos en Ponto y las regiones costeras occidentales de Turquía.[60]​ Una vez en Grecia, sin embargo, comenzaron a usar el idioma griego moderno,[66]​ haciendo que su ancestral dialecto griego, la lengua griega de Capadocia, vaya al borde de la extinción. Algunos griegos creían que el idioma griego de Capadocia había estado extinguido durante muchos años. La lengua fue entonces declarada viva en 2005, cuando los descendientes de los griegos de Capadocia fueron descubiertos que todavía hablan el idioma con fluidez en el centro y el norte de Grecia.[62]​ Hoy en día todavía es hablado por los griegos de Capadocia principalmente ancianos en varias regiones de Grecia, incluyendo en Karditsa, Volos, Kilkis, Larisa, Salónica, Calcídica, Kavala y Alexandroupoli.[87]​ Algunos griegos de Capadocia que se convirtieron al Islam, permitiéndoles evitar los intercambios de población de 1923, todavía hablan el idioma en su patria tradicional en Turquía.

CulturaEditar

Los griegos de Capadocia han sido aislados del resto del mundo de habla griega por siglos y esto ha hecho su cultura, modo de vida y costumbres un tanto distintivas. Su cultura ha sido fuertemente influenciada por la topografía de sus diferentes regiones. En ciudades comerciales como Kayseri y Malakopea la educación de nivel superior y las artes florecieron bajo la protección de una clase media cosmopolita. La economía de Capadocia se basaba en gran medida en la agricultura y la minería y en los centros rurales situados en los valles y llanuras. Los griegos de Capadocia tienen canciones y bailes tradicionales distintivos que todavía se realizan en Grecia.

Primera literatura griega capadociaEditar

 
Cappadocian Greek children wearing traditional costumes in Greece.

El poeta persa Rumi (1207-1273), cuyo nombre significa "romano", refiriéndose a su residencia entre los hablantes griegos "romanos" de Capadocia, escribió algunos poemas en griego capadocio.[94][95][96][97]​ These verses are one of the earliest literary attestations of the spoken Cappadocian vernacular.

 
Female traditional costume from Niğde (PFF Collection, Nafplion).

Literatura contemporáneaEditar

El inmigrante griego-americano de Capadocia y renombrado director de Hollywood Elia Kazan escribió un libro "America, America"sobre su tío, que creció en Capadocia en un ambiente de creciente persecución. Enviado a pie por su padre cuando era adolescente, con los ahorros de toda la familia, a Estambul, el tío de Elia debía establecer una nueva vida y, eventualmente, llevar al resto de la familia a la ciudad. Al final el tío de Elia viajó mucho más lejos, a América, más tarde cumpliendo su deber filial y llevando a su familia también. Kazan hizo su libro en una película ganadora del Premio de la Academia America, America en 1963.

GastronomíaEditar

Los griegos de Capadocia siguieron una serie de tradiciones culinarias de Anatolia pasadas desde tiempos bizantinos. Estos incluyen la preparación de carnes curadas por el viento conocidas como pastirma,[98][99][100]​ un manjar llamado en los tiempos bizantinos "paston" [101][102]​ junto con el uso de la ubicua hierba de espinaca del centro de Anatolia, el madimak, para hacer platos como una variante de spanikopita.[103]

Griegos capadocios famososEditar

 
Twelve notable Cappadocian Greeks: (top row) Elia Kazan, Vasileios Stefanidis, Pantelis Georgiadis, Evgenios of Kayseri, Dimosthenis Daniilidis, Konstantinos Vagiannis (bottom row) Ioannis Pesmazoglou, Pavlos Karolidis, Sofoklis Avraam Choudaverdoglou-Theodotos, Dimitrios Mavrofrydis, Ioakeim Valavanis, Georgios Georgiadis.

VideoEditar

The Cappadocian Greek-American immigrant and renowned Hollywood director Elia Kazan made an Academy Award winning movie America, America about his uncle, who grew-up in Cappadocia and then was sent on foot as a teenager, with the entire family savings, to escape persecution and establish a new life in Istanbul, and eventually, to bring the rest of the family there.

  • Documentary on the Cappadocian Greeks culture, traditional songs and dances:

Το Αλάτι Της Γης - Καππαδοκικό Γλέντι

Véase tambiénEditar

ReferenciasEditar

  1. a b Hirschon, Renée (2003). Crossing the Aegean: An Appraisal of the 1923 Compulsory Population Exchange Between Greece and Turkey. Berghahn Books. pp. 180-191. ISBN 978-1-57181-562-0. «Under the terms of Lausanne Convention, signed on 30 January 1923, an approximate total of over 1.2 million Los ciudadanos turcos de la religión ortodoxa griega fueron intercambiados por 354.647 ciudadanos griegos de la religión musulmana. Como parte de la fase final de este acuerdo, 44,432 refugiados capadocios ortodoxos griegos fueron expulsados de Turquía y llegaron a Grecia como personas intercambiadas. Como no habían huido en condiciones de conflicto militar, la experiencia para ellos fue diferente a la de las oleadas de refugiados que llegaron a Grecia en 1922. En este capítulo, describo dos asentamientos de Capadocia: Nueva Karvali en el este de Macedonia, norte de Grecia. , y New Prokopi en Grecia central, en la isla de Evia. Al elegir estudiar estos asentamientos particulares, dos factores resultaron decisivos: su nombre y su significado cultural. Ambos asentamientos fueron nombrados por los lugares que quedaron en Capadocia, con la adición de la palabra "Nueva". […]Aside from the religious dimension, the other main factor that helped the Cappadocian refugees transform their settlements from ‘space’ into a meaningful ‘place’ was that many of them were settled as communities and were not broken up and dispersed. This allowed the transplanted people to name their settlements in Greece after their villages in Cappadocia. […] In the case of the Cappadocians, the notion of keeping a discrete refugee community together as one unit in the settlement process played a significant role in the refugees’ process of adaptation. By settling near relatives and their fellow villagers from Cappadocia, these refugees were encouraged to re-create their neighborhoods.» 
  2. Blanchard, Raoul. "The Exchange of Populations Between Greece and Turkey." Geographical Review, 15.3 (1925): 449-56.
  3. Özkan, Akdoğan (2009). Kardeş bayramlar ve özel günler. Inkılâp. ISBN 978-975-10-2928-7. «Evlerin bolluk ve bereketi şu veya bu sebeple kaçmışsa, özellikle Rumların yoğun olarak yaşadığı Orta ve Kuzey Anadolu'da bunun sebebinin karakoncolos isimli iblis olduğu düşünülürmüş. Kapadokyalı Rumlar yeni yılın başında sırf ...» 
  4. Balta, Evangelia (2003). Ottoman studies and archives in Greece. The Isis Press. p. 48. ISBN 978-975-428-223-8. «'The so called "Asia Minor Folklore Studies" initially focused on Ottoman Cappadocia and its ethnic Greek inhabitants.» 
  5. a b Baum, Wilhelm (2006). The Christian minorities in Turkey. Kitab. p. 162. ISBN 978-3-902005-62-5. «On October 11, 1922, Turkey concluded an armistice with the allied forces, but not with the Greeks. The Greeks in the other settlement areas of Asia Minor were also expelled at that time, like e.g. the Kappadocian Greeks in the Goreme area and the other Greeks in Pontus, in the Trabzon area and on the west coast.» 
  6. a b Bichakjian, Bernard H. (2002). Language in a Darwinian perspective. Peter Lang. p. 206. ISBN 978-0-8204-5458-0. «Cappadocia is an ancient district in east central Anatolia, west of the Euphrates River, where there had been a Greek presence from the Hellenistic period to the beginning of this century, when the minority group was submitted to a “population exchange”. As the Cappadocians returned to Greece, they became absorbed by the local population and their dialect died out.» 
  7. a b c d Swain, Simon; Adams, J. Maxwell; Janse, Mark (2002). Bilingualism in Ancient Society: Language Contact and the Written Word. Oxford [Oxfordshire]: Oxford University Press. pp. 246-266. ISBN 0-19-924506-1. 
  8. Bevan, Edwyn Robert (1966). The house of Seleucus, Volume 1. Barnes & Noble. p. 76. OCLC 313659202. «The eastern and northern part of the country beyond the Taurus was known to the Persians as Katpatuka, a name which the Greeks transformed into Cappadocia (Kappadokia).» 
  9. Avi-Yonah, Michael (1978). Hellenism and the East: contacts and interrelations from Alexander to the Roman conquest. University Microfilms International. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-8357-0301-7. «The Ptolemies also kept close control of the cities on their domain, but as - apart from Naucratis - their cities were new foundations, the relations between them and their cities belong properly to the next subject to be dealt with, the foundation of new cities… Between these two areas cities were set up along the old Persian 'royal road' from Sardis to Cilicia. This strip of Greek colonies was located between the mountainous regions of Pisidia, Cilicia and Cappadocia, which remained largely unconquered or were ruled by native vassals. Another row of cities lined the seacoast from Rhodes eastwards.» 
  10. a b Cohen, Getzel M. (1995). The Hellenistic Settlements in Europe, the Islands, and Asia Minor. University of California Press. pp. 43-44. ISBN 978-0-520-08329-5. «Turning to the interior regions of Asia Minor, where incidentally his rule was remembered with great nostalgia, we are faced with a lack of unequivocal evidence for any kind of colony founding activity by him. This contrasts sharply with the extensive evidence for Seleucid activity in the region. How many of these Seleucid settlements originated as foundations of Antigonos (or of Lysimachos) is unknown. There is also evidence for colonies of Macedonians in Lydia and Phrygia. … He could, of course, recruit Greek soldiers from Asia Minor and the regions of Greece under his control. But the only Macedonians he could recruit were those already in Asia Minor and Asia. … In short the available evidence makes clear that the Seleucids were very active founding settlements in the interior of Asia Minor. It says nothing about a similar Antigonid effort. There were, of course, other means available to control area, According to Plutarch, when Eumenes was appointed satrap over Cappadocia he distributed cities to his friends, left behind judges (dikastai). And administrators (dioiketai), and appointed garrison commanders.» 
  11. Dueck, Daniela (2000). Strabo of Amasia: A Greek Man of Letters in Augustan Rome. Psychology Press. pp. 4-5. ISBN 978-0-415-21672-2. «The region is topographically divided into two large sections, the coastline and the mountainous inland region. Most of its cities were originally early Greek settlements founded along the seacoast, such as Sinope, Amisus and Pharnacia, whose economy and character were determined by maritime commerce. Amasia was the largest inland urban centre. Most of the other settlements in the interior were villages, generally more affected by earlier Iranian–Anatolian culture…The constant border movements are reflected in the name of the region, called also ‘Cappadocia near the Pontus’ or ‘Cappadocia on the Euxine’.» 
  12. a b Ashmore, Harry S. (1961). Encyclopædia Britannica: a new survey of universal knowledge, Volume 11. Encyclopædia Britannica. p. 406. «Asia Minor … But under the dynasties of his successors a great work of colonization went on as each rival dynasty of Greek or Macedonian kings endeavoured to secure its hold on the country by founding fresh Greek settlements. While new Greek cities were rising in the interior, the older Hellenism of the western coast grew in material splendour under the munificence of Hellenistic kings.» 
  13. a b Boyce, Mary; Grenet, Frantz (1991). A History of Zoroastrianism: Zoroastrianism Under Macedonian and Roman Rule. BRILL. pp. 267-8. ISBN 978-90-04-09271-6. «Las monedas de Ariaramnes y de Ariarathes III, con sus nombres de la menta y letras griegas, se han tomado para indicar una dispersión de griegos en las ciudades del sur de Capadocia. […] Su hijo Ariarates IV (220–c.162), así medio macedonio por la sangre, puso el título de "rey" en sus monedas, y adjunto a su nombre el cognomen Philopator. También introdujo el dispositivo de Atenea que sostiene a Niké, que se convirtió en el tipo reverso estándar de la moneda ariarátida. [...] Su hijo Ariarathes V (c.162-130), con el cognomen Eusebes, era un filheleno ardiente, y ya no usa la tiara en ninguna de sus monedas. En su juventud estudió en Atenas, donde se hizo amigo del futuro Átalo III, el último rey de Pérgamo. A su vez se casó con una princesa seléucida, su prima Nysa, hija de Antíoco III; y él refundó Mazaka y Tyana como poleis griego ...» 
  14. Newell, Edward Theodore (1968). Royal Greek portrait coins. Whitman Pub. Co. p. 52. OCLC 697579. «... Ariarathes V was probably the greatest of the Cappadocian kings.» 
  15. Gera, Dov (1998). Judaea and Mediterranean Politics, 219 to 161 B.C.E. BRILL. p. 259. ISBN 978-90-04-09441-3. «Antiochis, a daughter of Antiochus III, and aunt to both Antiochus V and Demetrius. Antiochis had been married to Ariarathes IV, the king of Cappadocia. At the time in question, her son Ariarathes V, the reigning king of Cappadocia asked Lysias’ permission to rebury his mother’s and sister’s bodies in the family plot of the Cappadocian royal house.» 
  16. Zion, Noam; Spectre, Barbara (2000). A Different Light: The Big Book of Hanukkah. Devora Publishing. p. 57. ISBN 978-1-930143-37-1. «Antiochus III, the Greek Seleucid Dynasty of Greater Syria captures Judea. 172 or 171–163». 
  17. Glubb, John Bagot (1967). Syria, Lebanon, Jordan. Thames & Hudson. p. 34. OCLC 585939. «Although the Ptolemies and the Seleucids were perpetual rivals, both dynasties were Greek and ruled by means of Greek officials and Greek soldiers. Both governments made great efforts to attract immigrants from Greece, thereby adding yet another racial element to the population.» 
  18. Plutarch (1871). Plutarch's Lives, Volume 2. Harper. p. 71. «There he had orders to wait for Tigranes, who was then employed in reducing some cities of Phoenicia; and he found means to bring over to the Roman interest many princes who submitted to the Armenian out of pure necessity… He had colonized Mesopotamia with Greeks, whom he draughted in great numbers out of Cilicia and Cappadocia.» 
  19. Eder, Walter; Renger, Johannes; Henkelman, Wouter; Chenault, Robert (2007). Brill's chronologies of the ancient world New Pauly names, dates and dynasties. Brill. p. 111. ISBN 978-90-04-15320-2. «Of greater historical importance are the Archelai, the descendants of an officer of Greek origin (Archelaus). […] The grandson, Archelaus, was the first to have some success in Cappadocia». 
  20. Plutarch (2007). Plutarch's Lives, Volume 2 (of 4). Echo Library. p. 312. ISBN 978-1-4068-2330-1. «This Archelaus was a native of Cappadocia, and probably of Greek stock.» 
  21. a b Boyce, Mary; Grenet, Frantz (1991). A History of Zoroastrianism: Zoroastrianism Under Macedonian and Roman Rule. BRILL. p. 269. ISBN 978-90-04-09271-6. «…36 B.C., when Mark Antony put Archelaus, a great-grandson of one of Mithradates’ generals, on the throne – perhaps Cappadocia’s first king of wholly non-Iranian blood. He appears to have been an able and energetic ruler, who enjoyed a long reign before being deposed in 17 A.C., when senile, by Tiberius, who annexed Cappadocia for Rome.» 
  22. a b Haughton, Brian (2009). Hidden History: Lost Civilizations, Secret Knowledge, and Ancient Mysteries. ReadHowYouWant. p. 448. ISBN 978-1-4429-5332-1. «Apollonius was born around AD2 in Tyana (modern day Bor in southern Turkey), in the Roman province of Cappadocia. He was born into a wealthy and respected Cappadocian Greek family, and received the best education, studying grammar and rhetoric in Tarsus, learning medicine at the temple of Aesculapius at Aegae, and philosophy at the school of Pythagoras.» 
  23. a b Toledo-Pereyra, Luis H. (2006). Origins of the knife: early encounters with the history of surgery. Landes Bioscience. p. 100. ISBN 978-1-57059-694-0. «Aretaeus the Cappadocian (81-138 AD) was the fourth surgeon of distinction considered during the times between Celsus and Galen. He was a Greek, born in Cappadocia, a Roman province in Asia Minor.» 
  24. a b Talbott, John Harold (1970). A biographical history of medicine: excerpts and essays on the men and their work. Grune & Stratton. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-8089-0657-5. «Aretaeus, a Greek, was born in Cappadocia, a Roman province in Asia Minor, several centuries after Hippocrates.» 
  25. a b Poretsky, Leonid (2002). Principles of Diabetes Mellitus. Springer. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-4020-7114-0. «Aretaeus of Cappadocia, a Greek physician who practiced in Rome and Alexandria in the second century AD, was the first to distinguish between what we now call diabetes mellitus and diabetes insipidus.» 
  26. Cantani, Arnaldo (2008). Pediatric Allergy, Asthma And Immunology. Springer. p. 724. ISBN 978-3-540-20768-9. «Aretaeus of Cappadocia, a well-known Greek physician (second century AD), is credited with providing the first detailed description of an asthma attack, and to Celsus it was a disease with wheezing and noisy, violent breathing.» 
  27. a b c d e f g h Horrocks, Geoffrey C. (2010). Greek: A History of the Language and Its Speakers. John Wiley & Sons. p. 403. ISBN 978-1-4051-3415-6. «None the less, at the beginning of the 20th century, Greek still had a strong presence in Silli north-west of Konya (ancient Ikonion), in Pharasa and other villages in the region drained by the Yenice river (some 100 kilómetros (Expresión errónea: falta operando para * ) south of Kayeri, ancient Caesarea), and in Cappadocia proper, at Arabison (Arapsu/Gulsehir) north-west of Nevsehir (ancient Nyssa), and in the large region south of Nevsehir as far down as Nigde and Bor (close to ancient Tyana). This whole area, as the home of St Basil the Great (329-79), his brother St Gregory of Nyssa (335-94) and his friend St Gregory of Nazianzos (330-89), was of great importance in the early history of Christianity, but is perhaps most famous today for the extraordinary landscape of eroded volcanic tufa in the valleys of Goreme, Ihlara and Soganh, and for the churches and houses carved into the 'fairy chimneys' to serve the Christian population in the middle ages. Many of the rock cut churches, which range in date from the 6th to the 13th centuries, contain magnificent frescos. Away from the valleys, some of the villages have vast underground complexes containing houses, cellars, stables, refectories, cemeteries and churches, affording protection from marauding Arabs in the days when the Byzantine empire extended to the Euphrates, and serving later as places of refuge from hostile Turkish raiders. The most famous of these are at Kaymakli and Derinkuyu, formerly the Greek villages of Anaku (Inegi) and Malakopi (Melagob), where the chambers extended down over several levels of depths of up to 85 metres.» 
  28. a b Robert C. Ostergren; Mathias Le Bossé (2011). The Europeans: A Geography of People, Culture, and Environment. Guilford Press. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-59385-384-6. «La difusión del cristianismo. Durante una visita de San Pablo en el primer siglo EC, los habitantes de Capadocia en el centro de Anatolia se convirtieron tan completamente que Capadocia se convirtió en la gran fortaleza del monaquismo cristiano. Los monasterios y las iglesias, cavados profundamente en los acantilados de toba volcánica, continuaron cumpliendo sus funciones hasta el intercambio de poblaciones entre Grecia y Turquía en 1923. Aquí tenemos el Monasterio de las Chicas, que acogió a unas 300 monjas y es llamado por los turcos el "Castillo de las Vírgenes.”». 
  29. Bury, John Bagnell (1967). The Cambridge medieval history, Volume 9, Part 2. University Press. p. 213. OCLC 25352555. «The three great Cappadocian Fathers, called by the Greeks 'the three hierarchs ', belong to the Alexandrian school of thought. They are Basil the Great, Bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia (c. 330-79); Gregory of Nazianzus, a writer of great sensibility with a turn for poetry, the great ‘Theologian’ (as he is called by later writers), for a short time Patriarch of Constantinople (c. 379-c. 390); and Gregory of Nyssa (died c. 394), brother of Basil the Great and Bishop of the small town of Nyssa, a profound thinker and versatile writer.» 
  30. a b Marvin Perry; Myrna Chase; James Jacob; Margaret Jacob; Theodore H. Von Laue (2012). Western Civilization: Ideas, Politics, and Society. Cengage Learning. p. 184. ISBN 978-1-111-83168-4. «Saint Basil (c. 329 - 379), a Greek who was bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia (eastern Asia Minor), established the rules that became the standard for the monasteries in the East.» 
  31. a b Company, Houghton Mifflin (2003). The Houghton Mifflin Dictionary of Biography. Houghton Mifflin Harcourt. p. 643. ISBN 978-0-618-25210-7. «Gregory of Nazian or Nazianzen, St c.330-c.389 AD * Greek prelate and theologian Born of Greek parents in Cappadocia, he was educated in Caesarea, Alexandria and Athens.» 
  32. Prokhorov, Aleksandr Mikhaĭlovich (1982). Great Soviet encyclopedia, Volume 7. Macmillan. p. 412. OCLC 417318059. «One of the most prominent Greek patristic figures. Gregory of Nyssa was the brother of Basil the Great and a friend of Gregory of Nazianzus, and with them he formed the so-called Cappadocian circle of church figures and thinkers.» 
  33. Clendenin Daniel B. (2003). Eastern Orthodox Christianity: A Western Perspective. Baker Academic. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-8010-2652-2. «Only that which is false and sinful must be rejected. Thus the Cappadocian Greek fathers of the fourth century admired Origen; Maximus the Confessor was inspired by Evagrios in his spirituality; Nicodemos of Athos (eighteenth ...» 
  34. Woodill, Joseph (2002). The Fellowship of Life: Virtue Ethics and Orthodox Christianity. Georgetown University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-87840-368-4. «THE CAPPADOCIANS It was not before the middle of the fourth century "that the province of Cappadocia produced three great theologians, Basil of Caesarea, his friend Gregory Nazianzus and his brother Gregory of Nyssa… It is difficult to find a passage in the Cappadocians that does not make reference to the life of virtue in classical terms and language. This is because the Cappadocian Fathers “stood squarely in the tradition of Greek culture.”…The Cappadocian Fathers both revered the Greek cultural pursuit of virtue found for example in Homer and Hesoid and, yet, despised the myths presented in the same works.» 
  35. a b Stark, Freya (2012). Rome on the Euphrates: The Story of a Frontier. Tauris Parke Paperbacks. p. 390. ISBN 978-1-84885-314-0. «Byzantium reverted to Greek (Maurice, born in Cappadocia, was its first Greek emperor); and trade and diplomacy were honored from the very founding of the Imperial city as never in Rome before.» 
  36. a b Corradini, Richard (2006). Texts and identities in the early Middle Ages. Verl. der Österr. Akad. der Wiss. p. 57. ISBN 978-3-7001-3747-4. «Emperor Maurice who is said to be the first emperor "from the race of the Greeks," ex Graecorum genere.» 
  37. Kinross, Baron Patrick Balfour (1970). Within the Taurus: a journey in Asiatic Turkey. J. Murray. p. 168. ISBN 978-0-7195-2038-9. «Its inhabitants were Cappadocian Greeks, who may have found a refuge here, perhaps from Roman, from Iconoclast, or later from Turkish and Mongol threats. Urgup itself was the Byzantine Prokopion; the Emperor Nicephoros Phocas is said to have passed this way, after his Cilician campaign; and the neighborhood was populous enough to support, at different times, a number of bishoprics.» 
  38. a b c d e Darke, Diana (2011). Eastern Turkey. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 139-140. ISBN 978-1-84162-339-9. «The area became an important frontier province during the 7th century when Arab raids on the Byzantine Empire began. By now the soft tufa had been tunneled and chambered to provide underground cities where a settled if cautious life could continue during difficult times. When the Byzantines re-established secure control between the 7th and 11th centuries, the troglodyte population surfaced, now carving their churches into rock faces and cliffs in the Goreme and Sogamli areas, giving Cappadocia its fame today. […] At any rate here they flourished, their churches remarkable for being cut into the rock, but interesting especially for their paintings, relatively well preserved, rich in coloring, and with an emotional intensity lacking in the formalism of Constantinople; this is one of the few places where paintings from the pre-iconoclastic period have survived. Icons continued to be painted after the Seljuk conquest of the area in the 11th century, and the Ottoman conquest did not interfere with the Christian practices in Cappadocia, where the countryside remained largely Greek, with some Armenians. But decline set in and Goreme, Ihlara and Soganli lost their early importance. The Greeks finally ending their long history here with the mass exchange of populations between Turkey and Greece in 1923.» 
  39. a b c Dawkins, R.M. (1916). Modern Greek in Asia Minor. A study of dialect of Silly, Cappadocia and Pharasa.. Cambridge University Press. p. 16. Consultado el 25 de octubre de 2014. «their use as places of refuge in time of danger is indicated by their name καταφύγια, and when the news came of the recent massacres at Adana [in 1909], a great part of the population at Axo took refuge in these underground chambers, and for some nights did not venture to sleep above ground.» 
  40. a b c Ousterhout, Robert G. (2005). A Byzantine Settlement in Cappadocia. Dumbarton Oaks. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-88402-310-4. «The Mysteries of Cappadocia – During the Middle Ages, when Cappadocia was an important province of the Byzantine Empire, It became a vibrant area of habitation, with hundreds of settlements, churches, and monasteries carved into the rocky landscape. More than seven hundred churches alone have been counted in the region, many of them preserving impressive ensembles of fresco decoration. Bringing together the best of the Tertiary and the Byzantine periods, the combination of scenic geological wonder and arcane art history has made Cappadocia a tourist destination of ever increasing popularity.» 
  41. a b Rodley, Lyn (2010). Cave Monasteries of Byzantine Cappadocia. Cambridge University Press. p. 1. ISBN 978-0-521-15477-2. «The tenth-century historian Leo the Deacon records a journey to Cappadocia made by Nikephoros Phokas shortly before he became emperor. Perhaps to recapture the attention of readers beginning to tire of troop movements he also offers a scrap of information about a curiosity of the region to which the emperor was heading: its inhabitants were once called troglodytes, because ‘they went underground in holes, clefts and labyrinths, as it were in dens and burrows’. This brief note was probably not based on first-hand knowledge but it might have been prompted by an awareness of the vast number of rock-cut cavities in an area to the west and southwest of Kaisareia (Kayseri of modern Turkey). Had Leo been more inclined to garrulous digression (or perhaps just better informed), he might have supplied more details of the troglodyte region and the task of bringing scholarly order to the hundreds of rock-cut monuments and other cavities in the area might have been much similar. … At this time the region was still inhabited by a mixed population of Turkish-speaking Moslems and Greek-speaking Christians. The latter group left for Greece in the early 1920s, during an exchange of population of minorities that was part of the radical social re-ordering initiated by Kemal Ataturk; they were replaced by Turks from Greece, mostly from Thrace. In the two decades before this upheaval, however, members of the local Greek population acted as guides to Guillaume de Jerphanion, who made several visits to the volcanic valleys and wrote his meticulous descriptions of many painted Byzantine rock-cut churches.» 
  42. Bainbridge, James (2009). Turkey. Lonely Planet. p. 527. ISBN 978-1-74104-927-5. «Several mummies are exhibited too, including the 11th-century mummy of a blonde nun discovered in the 1960s in the Ihlara Valley.» 
  43. Önder, Mehmet (1983). The museums of Turkey and examples of the masterpieces in the museums. Türkiye İş Bankasi. p. 162. OCLC 19230376. «In this museum there is also a mummy which is believed to date from Byzantine times.» 
  44. Shwartz, Susan (2001). Shards of Empire. E-reads/E-rights. p. 380. ISBN 978-0-7592-1298-5. «He also mentions the graves in the underground cities. He also mentions the discovery of a mummified body of a young girl in Ihlara Valley (Peristrema), one of the most remote of the Cappadocian monastic communities and cut by the Melendiz River to the depth of 150 meters, which is where I placed Father Meletios and his friends.» 
  45. a b Hovannisian, Richard G. (2004). The Armenian People From Ancient to Modern Times, Volume I: The Dynastic Periods: From Antiquity to the Fourteenth Century. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 243. ISBN 978-1-4039-6421-2. «From the late tenth century on the Byzantine Empire had followed a policy of removing prominent nakharars from their native lands, absorbing those lands in the structure of the empire, and giving the nakharars in exchange lands and titles elsewhere. The decision of many lords to leave was frequently the result of coercion, though throughout the tenth to eleventh centuries there were also pro-Byzantine factions within the Armenian kingdoms, supporting Byzantium’s aims. Already in 968 the southwestern district of Taron was annexed. In 1000, a large area embracing Tayk, Karin, and Manzikert (to the north of Lake Van) was annexed to the Byzantine Empire. In 1021 King Senekerim Artsruni of Vaspurakan ceded his kingdom to the empire and moved to Cappadocia. He was followed in 1045 by King Gagik II of Ani and King Gagik-Abas of Kars (1064). The Byzantine policy of removing important lords from their Armenian lands and settling them elsewhere (principally on imperial territory, in Cappadocia and northern Mesopotamia) proved shortsighted in two respects. First, it left eastern Asia Minor devoid of its native defenders. Second, it exacerbated Armeno-Greek ethnic tensions by the introduction of thousands of Armenian newcomers into Cappadocia. The empire compounded its error by disbanding a 50,000-man local Armenian army, ostensibly to save money. As a result, the land was left defenseless as well as leaderless.» 
  46. a b c Zlatar, Zdenko (2007). The Poetics of Slavdom: The Mythopoeic Foundations of Yugoslavia, Volume 2. Peter Lang. p. 540. ISBN 978-0-8204-8135-7. «It was after the defeat of the Byzantine Emperor Romanos IV Diogenes (reigned 1068-1071) and his capture the Seljuk sultan, Alp Aslan (reigned 1063-1072) at Manzikert in Armenia that the real Michael VII Dukas arose. The defeat at Manzikert led to the loss of most of Anatolia, from which the Byzantine Empire never truly recovered, and it inaugurated the process of islamization of the Greek population of Asia Minor.» 
  47. a b Richard C. Frucht (2005). Eastern Europe: An Intruduction to the People, Lands, and Culture. ABC-CLIO. p. 886. ISBN 978-1-57607-800-6. «El Imperio Bizantino sufre una gran derrota en la Batalla de Manzikert en el este de Anatolia, abriendo el interior de Asia Menor a la invasión de los turcos Sekjuk. Este giro estratégico comenzó la constante transformación multicéntrica de Asia Menor de un centro completamente cristiano y poblado por griegos a una región predominantemente musulmana y turca». 
  48. a b c Suzek, Senem (2008). The decoration of cave churches in Cappadocia under Selçuk rule. Thesis (M.A.)--University of Notre Dame. pp. 9-11. OCLC 747992800. «These events in themselves alienated the provinces, to such an extent that it has been claimed that the Armenian and Syrian Monophysite communities welcomed Turkish rule which was seen as relief from the oppression of Orthodox Christianity. Military losses in the tenth and eleventh centuries severely disrupted the population of Asia Minor. Two forced migrations of Armenians into Cappadocia have been documented. The first occurred in the tenth century following the Byzantine conquests of Melitene (934), Tarsus (965), and Antioch (969). The second followed the Battle of Malazgirt (Manzikert) in 1071, when many Armenians moved west. As documented by the chronicler Matthew of Edessa, after severe persecutions of the Armenian and Syrian Monophysite non-Calcedonian communities, the Armenian royal families, which included Adom and Abucahl of Vaspuracan and Gagik of Ani, used the opportunity provided by the Selçuk conquest to seek vengeance upon the local Greek Orthodox population. This included the pillage of wealthy estates and the torture and assassination of the Orthodox metropolitan of Kayseri. Kakig was eventually killed by the local Greek landowners.» 
  49. a b Herrin, Judith; Saint-Guillain, Guillaume (2011). Identities and Allegiances in the Eastern Mediterranean After 1204. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 181. ISBN 978-1-4094-1098-0. «The geographical distribution of the Greek population in Muslim Asia Minor in the first half of the thirteenth century is not clear. It is not impossible that the Greeks might have constituted and ethnic majority in some large urban centres throughout the Seljuk sultanate of Rum…Probably by the beginning of the thirteenth century most of northern Galatia, Phrygia, southern Paphlagonia, and some inland areas adjacent to the Byzantine Pontos, had been cleared of Greeks. Under the pressure of the Turkmen nomads they had emigrated to Western Anatolia, the Balkans, the Pontos, as well as to the central Anatolian plateau and coastal regions of Lycia and Pamphylia in all likelihood. The Greeks were rather numerous in city centers and rural areas in ancient Lycaonia, Cappadocia and Pamphylia. In north-eastern Anatolia the major cities of Sivas, Erzincan, Erzerum were mostly populated by Armenians and Greeks.» 
  50. Barve, Shashikant V. (1995). Introduction to classical Arabic: a contribution to Islamic and oriental studies. S.V. Barve. pp. 1-89. OCLC 33161571. «The Seljuk state of Anatolia was thus born under the great-grandson of Saljooq and it was duly recognized as an independent sultanate by the ‘Abbasid caliph. This facilitated massive Turkish migration and settlement in Anatolia and the process of its islamisation and turkification began in full swing. The Greek Christian population began to diminish owing to mass conversions to Islam or slaughter or exile to Greek territories in Europe.» 
  51. a b Lapidus, Ira Marvin (2002). A History of Islamic Societies. Cambridge University Press. pp. 250-252. ISBN 978-0-521-77933-3. «The absorption of the former Byzantine empire by Turkish-Muslim conquerors led to the eventual conversion of Anatolia and thus added new territories to the domain of Islam. Before the Turkish migrations, the vast majority of the Greek, Armenian, Georgian, and Syrian populations of Anatolia had been Christian. By the fifteenth century more than 90 percent of the population was Muslim. Some of this change was due to the immigration of a large Muslim population, but in great part it was caused by the conversion of Christians to Islam. These conversions were basically due to the breakdown of Anatolian Christianity through the weakening of the Byzantine state and the Greek Orthodox Church, and the collapse of Anatolian society in the face of Turkish migrations. In the late thirteenth and fourteenth centuries the Turks excluded bishops and metropolitans from their sees. Church revenues and properties were confiscated. Hospitals, schools, orphanages, and monasteries were destroyed or abandoned, and the Anatolian Christian population was left without leadership and social services. The remaining Christian clerics had to turn to Turkish authorities to handle internal disputes on terms that only further weakened Christian institutions. …Byzantine princes, lords, and administrators were tempted to convert to Islam in order to join the Ottoman aristocracy. By the end of the fifteenth century Anatolia was largely Muslim. The Ottoman conquests in the Balkans also established Muslim hegemony over large Christian populations, but did not lead, as in Anatolia, to the substantial assimilation of the regional population to Islam.» 
  52. Pentzopoulos, Dimitri (2002). The Balkan exchange of minorities and its impact on Greece. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. pp. 29-30. ISBN 978-1-85065-702-6. 
  53. Çiğdem Balım-Harding; Meral Güçlü (1999). Turkey. Clio Press. p. xxvi. ISBN 978-1-85109-295-6. «During these centuries, other peoples of Anatolia (Greeks, Kurds, Armenians and others) lived with the Turks and shared the land; many adopted the Turkish language, converted to Islam, and came to be known as Turks. The Mongol invasion changed the demography of the Middle East and even central Asia. Turkic tribesmen migrated in large numbers into the Middle East, turkicizing Anatolia, northern Iran and central Eurasia.» 
  54. a b Thierry, Nicole; Thierry, Jean Michel (1963). Nouvelles églises rupestres de Cappadoce. C. Klincksieck. p. viii. OCLC 22265623. «This is the latest of the painted churches, for an inscription states that the donor of the frescoes was Thamar, wife of Basil Giagupes, a Greek feudatory serving the Seljuk Sultan of Konia, Masut II. He was probably the lord of the surrounding district which must have still been strongly Greek.» 
  55. Peacock, A.C.S.; De Nicola, Bruno (2016). Islam and Christianity in Medieval Anatolia. [Routledge]: Routledge. pp. 216-221, 229, 231. ISBN 9781317112693. «The Greek communities of Cappadocia under the Seljuqs had a profound spiritual attachment to Byzantium, which formed a significant part of their communal identity. … On the other hand, the story gives tangible information on the situation of indigenous Greek painters in Anatolia, even if not taken literally. Above all, the author states that the two Greek artists in question are considered among the best in the land of Rūm, while stressing that they were excellent in the field of human figures, which probably distinguished them from their Muslim counterparts. Second, the story of the painter Kaloioannes or, Kālūyāni Naqqāsh, his journey to Constantinople, and his one-year stay a monastery in the Byzantine capital during the lifetime of Mawlana should correspond to the second half of the thirteenth century. This suggests that Greek painters of Rūm were well acquainted with Byzantine art through direct contact with Constantinople from 1261 onwards.» 
  56. a b Panzac, Daniel (1995). Histoire économique et sociale de l'Empire ottoman et de la Turquie (1326-1960): actes du sixième congrès international tenu à Aix-en-Provence du 1er au 4 juillet 1992. Peeters Publishers. pp. 345-6. ISBN 978-90-6831-799-2. «They were known as Karaman Greeks (Karamanlilar or Karamaniyari) and had latterly been turcificated during in culture and language during the reign of Murad III. A good number of them had been converted to Islam.» 
  57. a b Hanioğlu, M. Şükrü (2010). A Brief History of the Late Ottoman Empire. Princeton University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-691-14617-1. «The Ottoman state never sought to impose Turkish on subject peoples…Some ethno-religious groups, when outnumbered by Turks, did accept Turkish vernacular through a gradual process of acculturation. While the Greeks of the Peloponnese, Thessaly, Epirus, Macedonia, Thrace, and west Anatolian littoral continued to speak and write in Greek, The Greeks of Cappadocia (Karaman) spoke Turkish and wrote Turkish in Greek script. Similarly, a large majority of Armenians in the empire adopted Turkish as their vernacular and wrote Turkish in Armenian characters, all efforts to the contrary by the Mkhitarist order notwithstanding. The first novels published in the Ottoman Empire in the mid-nineteenth century were by Armenians and Cappadocian Greeks; they wrote them in Turkish, using the Armenian and Greek alphabets.» 
  58. Day Otis Kellogg; Thomas Spencer Baynes; William Robertson Smith (1903). The Encyclopædia Britannica: A-ZYM. Werner. p. 82. OCLC 4704101. «By the Greeks it is still called by its ancient name of Laranda. which was changed by the Turks for its present designation in honour of Karaman, the founder of the Karamanian kingdom.» 
  59. a b Augustinos, Gerasimos (1992). The Greeks of Asia Minor: confession, community, and ethnicity in the nineteenth century. Kent State University Press. p. 18. ISBN 978-0-87338-459-9. «Most of all, the imperial capital drew Greeks from communities deep in the interior. Greek and Turkish-speaking men from the regions of Cappadocia and Karaman settled in the capital, forming enclaves of their native communities.» 
  60. a b c d e f Daly, Michael; Bodleian Library (1988). The Turkish legacy: an exhibition of books and manuscripts to mark the fiftieth anniversary of the death of the founder of the Turkish Republic, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Bodleian Library. p. 40. ISBN 978-1-85124-016-6. «…a large number of works were printed in Turkish using the Greek and Armenian alphabets. These were intended for those ethnic Greeks and Armenians who, while retaining their religious allegiance to their respective churches, had lost all knowledge of their own languages and had been assimilated linguistically by their Muslim Turkish neighbours. Turcophone Greeks were known as Karamanlides, after the province of Karaman where many of them lived, although there were also large communities in Istanbul and in the Black Sea region, and printed or manuscript works in Turkish using the Greek alphabet are known as Karamanlidika.» 
  61. Guppy, Henry; John Rylands Library (1956). Bulletin of the John Rylands Library, Volume 38. Manchester University Press. p. 27. «Third, the rapid conversion of the country to Islam and Turkish speech — except in the case of some remote villages of Cappadocia which remained Greek-speaking and Christian – can be explained if the former inhabitants had to return as suppliants to the new foundations». 
  62. a b Horrocks, Geoffrey C. (2010). Greek: A History of the Language and Its Speakers. John Wiley & Sons. p. 398. ISBN 978-1-4051-3415-6. «Cappadocia fell immediately under Seljuk control and, with the growth of bilingualism and conversion to Islam, its dialects began to show signs of Turkish influence and later of convergence with the dominant language. After the Greek military disaster of 1922-3 and the deportation of the Christian population to settlements in central and northern Greece, the central and eastern Anatolian varieties fell into what till recently was believed to be terminal decline. In 2005, however, it was discovered that there were descendants of the Cappadocian refugees in central and northern Greece who still spoke their traditional language fluently. The position of Cappadocia remains precarious, but it is certainly not yet extinct.» 
  63. Rodley, Lyn (2010). Cave Monasteries of Byzantine Cappadocia. Cambridge University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-521-15477-2. «..medieval place names in the region that can be established are known only from scant references: one Elpidios, Memorophylax of Prokopios, who attended the Council of Chalcedon (451), may have come from Hagios Prokopios (now Urgup, but still called ‘Prokopion’ by the local Greek population in the early years of this century);». 
  64. a b Nagel Publishers (1968). Turkey. Nagel. p. 615. OCLC 3060049. «The Karaman region was for a long time inhabited by Turkish-speaking Orthodox Greeks who wrote Turkish in the Greek script. These Greeks are called Karamanians.» 
  65. a b Paul J J Sinclair; Gullög Nordquist; Frands Herschend; Christian Isendahl; Laura Wrang (2010). The Urban mind : cultural and environmental dynamics. Uppsala, Sweden : African and Comparative Archaeology, Department of Archaeology and Ancient History, Uppsala University. p. 425. ISBN 978-91-506-2175-4. «The roles of various minorities will be dealt with below. The largest minorities developed their own written traditions, creating Graeco-Turkish, Armeno- Turkish, and Judeo-Turkish literatures. In the 16th century, Jewish poets wrote hymns in Hebrew after the model of Ottoman songs and wrote Turkish in Hebrew script. The first literary works in a modern European sense were based on a spoken variety of Turkish and written with Armenian characters. The Karamanlid literature, produced by orthodox Christians, was written in Greek characters. The Judeo-Spanish (Ladino) group cultivated a Romance variety brought to Istanbul and the Balkans by Jews expelled from Spain in 1492. The first descriptions and grammars of Ottoman were written by minority members and foreigners. Ottoman scholars were less interested in the cultivation of Turkish as such, but paid more attention to the Arabic and Persian components of written Ottoman. As described below, the so-called transcription texts produced by various mediators are of high value for reconstructing the development of Turkish spoken varieties.» 
  66. a b Gökalp, Ziya (1959). Turkish nationalism and Western civilization: selected essays. Columbia University Press. p. 131. OCLC 407546. «In Turkey the Karaman Greeks and many Armenians revived their languages after they had been Turkified.» 
  67. a b c Klaus Roth; Robert Hayden (2011). Migration In, From, and to Southeastern Europe. LIT Verlag Münster. p. 65. ISBN 978-3-643-10895-1. «Journalists describing conversion to Islam usually considered the renegade as someone who, by losing his or her religion, was also stepping out of the Greek national community. The act would be usually described as an “eksomosia” (Metarrythmisis 3/15.6.1892; Omonia 16/29.2.1904), an apostasy from the religious oath. It might also be characterized as an “aponenoimeno diavima” (Omonia 10/23.2.1903), a desperate, out of mind action, an expression usually reserved for people who commit suicide. In this understanding, choosing to adopt the Muslim religion was not just an individual choice concerning spiritual matters, but additionally signified giving away “tin thriskeian kai ton ethnismon”, both religion and “national essence” (Metarrythmisis 3/15.6.1892). People who took such a decision were the people who “tourkeuoun”, who “become Turks”, an expression applied even when referring to people shifting to Islam in Egypt (Metarrythmisis 30/12.5.1891; Alitheia 3/15.11.1895). The use of this expression is an example of what has been called “Ottoman thinking”, according to which Muslims and Turks are conflated, and was even popular many years after the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (Hirschon 2001: 171).» 
  68. Masters, Bruce Alan (2004). Christians And Jews In The Ottoman Arab World: The Roots Of Sectarianism. Cambridge University Press. p. 11. ISBN 978-0-521-00582-1. «Throughout most of the Ottoman period, European visitors to the sultans' realms used the label "Turk" indiscriminately to mean any Muslim, regardless of his or her mother tongue. To become Muslim was to "turn Turk.» 
  69. Rodley, Lyn (2010). Cave Monasteries of Byzantine Cappadocia. Cambridge University Press. p. 160. ISBN 978-0-521-15477-2. «Many shifts of population in central Anatolia took place before the removal of the Cappadocian Greeks in the 1920s and it is quite possible that the Archangel Monastery was abandoned, perhaps for centuries, and then restored to parochial, rather than monastic, use.» 
  70. Petersen, Andrew (2002). Dictionary of Islamic Architecture. Routledge. p. 58. ISBN 978-0-203-20387-3. «Cyprus (Turkish: Kibris; Arabic: Qubrus)…However, in many ways the Ottoman conquest had simply replaced one group of rulers with another, leaving the Greek Orthodox population largely intact. This situation was understood by the Ottoman emperor, Selim I, who after the conquest tried to improve the prosperity of the island by populating it with Greek families from the Kayseri region. Ottoman rule ended with the First World War and from 1918 the island was under British rule until it became independent in the 1950s.» 
  71. a b Goodwin, Godfrey (1971). A history of Ottoman architecture. Johns Hopkins Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-0-8018-1202-6. «He came from the district of Karaman and the Greek lands, but he does not, it is true, specifically call himself a Greek, which, in effect, he no longer was from the moment that he admitted that there was no other God but Allah. Yet after the conquest of Cyprus in 1571, when Selim decided to repopulate the island by transferring Greek families from the Karaman beylik, Sinan intervened on behalf of his family and obtained two orders from the Sultan in council exempting them from deportation. It was Selim I who ordered the first devsirme levy in Anatolia in 1512 and sent Yaya- basis to Karamania and this is probably the year in which Sinan came to Istanbul. Since he was born about 1491, or at the latest in 1492, he was old for a devsirme…». 
  72. a b Rogers, J. M. (2006). Sinan. I.B.Tauris. p. backcover. ISBN 978-1-84511-096-3. «(Sinan) He was born in Cappadocia, probably into a Greek Christian family. Drafted into the Janissaries during his adolescence, he rapidly gained promotion and distinction as a military engineer.» 
  73. a b c Oberheu, Susanne. Wadenpohl, Michael (2010). Cappadocia. BoD. pp. 270-1. ISBN 978-3-8391-5661-2. «On May 1st, 1923, the agreement on the exchange of the Turkish and Greek minorities in both countries was published. A shock went through the ranks of the people affected – on both sides. Within a few months they had to pack their belongings and ship them or even sell them. They were to leave their homes, which had also been their great-grandfathers’ homes, they were to give up their holy places and leave the graves of their ancestors to an uncertain fate. In Cappadocia, the villages of Mustafapasa, Urgup, Guzelyurt and Nevsehir were the ones affected most by this rule. Often more than half the population of a village had to leave the country, so that those places were hardly able to survive…The Greeks form Cappadocia were taken to Mersin on the coast in order to be shipped to Greece from there. But they had to leave the remaining part of their belongings behind in the harbor. They were actually promised that everything would be sent after them later, but corrupt officials and numberless thieves looted the crammed storehouses, so that after a few months only a fraction of the goods or even nothing at all arrived at their new home….Today the old houses of the Greek people are the only testimony that reminds us of them in Cappadocia. But these silent witnesses are in danger, too. Only a few families can afford the maintenance of those buildings….» 
  74. a b Güzelyurt becomes a touristic hub. AKSARAY - Anatolia News Agency. 17 de julio de 2012. «In the town of Güzelyurt in Aksaray Province in the Central Anatolian region of Turkey, 250-year-old arched stone mansions have been transformed into boutique hotels to serve tourists coming to discover the area’s cultural and historical treasures. The town is an important part of the historical Cappadocia region…Much of the previously large Greek population in Güzelyurt vanished with the population exchange of the 1920s. "With the population exchange in 1924, Greeks and Turks exchanged places. Before the population exchange, rich Greeks dealing with trade in Istanbul had historical mansions in Güzelyurt," Özeş said. Some houses in the town date back 250 years and a few 100-year-old historical houses also exist, according to Özeş. "They have extremely thick walls. The height of the arches is nearly four to five meters. Each of the houses is a work of art creating an authentic environment."». 
  75. Saffron, Inga (2002). Caviar: the strange history and uncertain future of the world's most coveted delicacy. Broadway Books. p. 66. ISBN 978-0-7679-0623-4. «Middlemen from Greece, Italy, and the Levant haggled over barrels of the newly popular delicacy. Young, ethnic Greek boys came down from hills of Cappadocia to work in the Istanbul caviar trade.» 
  76. C[harles] W[illiam] Wilson (1887). The Greeks in Asia. The Asiatic Quarterly Review, Volume III, January–April, pp. 32-56. Swan Sonnenshein & Company. pp. 50-51. OCLC 457113541. «The Cappadocian Greeks have a reputation throughout Asia Minor for energy and commercial activity; there are few towns in which a merchant from Kaisariyeh is not to be found ; and the rocky nature of the country drives even the poorer classes to seek their living elsewhere. Perhaps the most interesting trait in the character of these Greeks is their intense love of their native country; the great ambition of every man is to earn sufficient money to enable him to build a house and settle down in his beloved Cappadocia. The young men go off to Constantinople for a few years, and then return to marry and build a house; a couple of years of married life sees the end of their savings, and they have to revisit the capital, sometimes remaining there ten or fifteen years, to earn sufficient to support themselves and their wives for the remainder of their lives. Each village is connected with some particular guild in Constantinople; one supplies bakals or small storekeepers, another sellers of wine and spirits, another dryers of fish, another makers of caviare, another porters, and so forth…The people have no marked political aspirations such as those which prevail amongst the Greeks of the west coast; they dream, it is true, of a new Byzantine Empire, but any sympathies they can spare from an all-absorbing love of money and gain are devoted to the Russian. The south Cappadocian district, in which St. Gregory of Nazianzus once ministered, shows many signs of growing prosperity ; building is going on, and the people are vacating, for houses above ground, the subterranean villages, to which they owe the preservation of their faith and language. These villages are known by Greek as well as by Turkish names ; in some Greek is spoken by Moslem and Christian, in others a Graeco-Turk jargon, and in others Turkish only; and this mixture is found even in the churches, where the descriptive remarks on the holy pictures are often in Turkish written in Greek characters.» 
  77. a b Hirschon, Renée (1998). Heirs of the Greek Catastrophe: The Social Life of Asia Minor Refugees in Piraeus. Berghahn Books. p. 18. ISBN 978-1-57181-730-3. «Before the expulsion, Greek settlements were both numerous and widespread throughout Asia Minor, indeed throughout most of today’s Turkey. The greatest concentration was in the province of Pontus, on the Black Sea, where the Greek presence goes back for millennia. The western coastal regions and north-western area of Asia Minor were also densly settled with numerous Greek communities in coastal and inland cities and in the countryside. Generally, fewer Greek communities existed in central and southern Asia Minor, but the provinces of Kappadokia and Lykaonia had large numbers of Greek settlements and substantial populations in urban centers such as Kaisaria, Nigde, and Ikonion.» 
  78. a b c Jones, Adam (2010). Genocide: A Comprehensive Introduction. Taylor & Francis. pp. 150-151. ISBN 978-0-415-48618-7. «By the beginning of the First World War, a majority of the region’s ethnic Greeks still lived in present-day Turkey, mostly in Thrace (the only remaining Ottoman territory in Europe, abutting the Greek border), and along the Aegean and Black Sea coasts. They would be targeted both prior to and alongside the Armenians of Anatolia and Assyrians of Anatolia and Mesopotamia…The major populations of “Anatolian Greeks” include those along the Aegean coast and in Cappadocia (central Anatolia), but not the Greeks of the Thrace region west of the Bosphorus…A “Christian genocide” framing acknowledges the historic claims of Assyrian and Greek peoples, and the movements now stirring for recognition and restitution among Greek and Assyrian diasporas. It also brings to light the quite staggering cumulative death toll among the various Christian groups targeted…of the 1.5 million Greeks of Asia minor – Ionians, Pontians, and Cappadocians – approximately 750,000 were massacred and 750,000 exiled. Pontian deaths alone totaled 353,000.» 
  79. Vermeule, C. C. (2001). ART AND ARCHAEOLOGY OF ANTIQUITY, Volumes 2-3. Pindar Press. p. 243. ISBN 978-1-899828-11-1. «The Cappadocian Greeks of the twentieth century were known not only for their preservation of the ancient tongue but also for the richness of their folktales, legends of saints, kings, heroes, and common folk that often went back through the Byzantine era to Graeco-Roman times. R. M. Dawkins observed that the children whom he met in the villages of Cappadocia preserved among themselves the last traces and broken fragments of the art, each child telling his own special story to the others.» 
  80. Schiffer, Reinhold (1999). Oriental Panorama: British Travellers in 19th Century Turkey. Rodopi. p. 269. ISBN 978-90-420-0796-3. «…in 1838 Ainsworth spoke of the regained ease, freedom and prosperity of Cappadocian Greek settlements such as Nevsehir and Incesu and arrived as a verdict which is possibly less remote from the truth than that of British castigators: "The Cappadocian Greeks are, generally speaking, pleasing and unreserved in their manners, and their conversation indicated a very high degree of intelligence and civilization, where there are so few books, and so little education, and consequently, little learning."». 
  81. C[harles] W[illiam] Wilson (1887). The Greeks in Asia. The Asiatic Quarterly Review, Volume III, January–April, pages 50,51. «The Cappadocian Greeks have a reputation throughout Asia Minor for energy and commercial activity; there are few towns in which a merchant from Kaisariyeh is not to be found ; and the rocky nature of the country drives even the poorer classes to seek their living elsewhere. Perhaps the most interesting trait in the character of these Greeks is their intense love of their native country; the great ambition of every man is to earn sufficient money to enable him to build a house and settle down in his beloved Cappadocia. The young men go off to Constantinople for a few years, and then return to marry and build a house; a couple of years of married life sees the end of their savings, and they have to revisit the capital, sometimes remaining there ten or fifteen years, to earn sufficient to support themselves and their wives for the remainder of their lives. Each village is connected with some particular guild in Constantinople; one supplies bakals or small storekeepers, another sellers of wine and spirits, another dryers of fish, another makers of caviare, another porters, and so forth…The people have no marked political aspirations such as those which prevail amongst the Greeks of the west coast; they dream, it is true, of a new Byzantine Empire, but any sympathies they can spare from an all-absorbing love of money and gain are devoted to the Russian. The south Cappadocian district, in which St. Gregory of Nazianzus once ministered, shows many signs of growing prosperity ; building is going on, and the people are vacating, for houses above ground, the subterranean villages, to which they owe the preservation of their faith and language. These villages are known by Greek as well as by Turkish names ; in some Greek is spoken by Moslem and Christian, in others a Graeco-Turk jargon, and in others Turkish only; and this mixture is found even in the churches, where the descriptive remarks on the holy pictures are often in Turkish written in Greek characters.» 
  82. a b Taylor, Frederick (2012). Exorcising Hitler: The Occupation and Denazification of Germany. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 59-60. ISBN 978-1-4088-2212-8. «The other large Christian minority in the Turkish sphere of rule was that of the Ottoman Greeks, again totaling around 1.5 million, mostly living near to the west coast of Anatolia, where they had been settled since a millennium before the birth of Christ. Numerous Greeks were to be found also in Istanbul (once, as Constantinople, the capital of the Greek Byzantine Empire), on the Black Sea coast and in the eastern province of Cappadocia, where the long-established but isolated Greek population now spoke a kind of Turkish dialect… The resulting war between the Greeks and Turks, the latter led by their great national hero, General Mustafa Kemal (later honored with the name Kemal Ataturk) ended in a definite and tragically bloody Turkish victory. Many thousands of Greeks were massacred or fled». 
  83. a b Moseley, Christopher (2007). Encyclopedia Of The World's Endangered Languages. Psychology Press. pp. 239-40. ISBN 978-0-7007-1197-0. «Cappadocian Greek [100] an outlying dialect of Greek spoken in a few isolated communities in the interior of Cappadocia in central Turkey, notably in Sille (Silli) near Konya, villages near Kayseri, and Faras (Pharasa) and adjacent villages, before the genocide of 1915 and the subsequent population exchanges, after which most survivors settled in Greece.» 
  84. a b c Midlarsky, Manus I. (2005). The Killing Trap: Genocide in the Twentieth Century. Cambridge University Press. pp. 342-343. ISBN 978-0-521-81545-1. «Many, (Greeks) however, were massacred by the Turks, especially at Smyrna (today’s İzmir) as the Greek army withdrew at the end of their headlong retreat from central Anatolia at the end of the Greco-Turkish War. Especially poorly treated were the Pontic Greeks in eastern Anatolia on the Black Sea. In 1920, as the Greek army advanced, many were deported to the Mesopotamian desert as had been the Armenians before them. Nevertheless, approximately 1,200,000 Ottoman Greek refugees arrived in Greece at the end of the war. When one adds to the total the Greeks of Constantinople who, by agreement, were not forced to flee, then the total number comes closer to the 1,500,000 Greeks in Anatolia and Thrace. Here, a strong distinction between intention and action is found. According to the Austrian consul at Amisos, Kwiatkowski, in his November 30, 1916, report to foreign minister Baron Burian: “on 26 November Rafet Bey told me: ‘we must finish off the Greeks as we did with the Armenians…’ on 28 November Rafet Bey told me : ‘today I sent squads to the interior to kill every Greek on sight.’ I fear for the elimination of the entire Greek population and a repeat of what occurred last year, Or according to a January 31, 1917, report by Chancellor Hollweg of Austria: The indications are that the Turks plan to eliminate the Greek element as enemies of the state, as they did earlier with the Armenians. The strategy implemented by the Turks is of displacing people to the interior without taking measures for their survival by exposing them to death, hunger, and illness. The abandoned homes are then looted and burnt or destroyed. Whatever was done to the Armenians is being repeated with the Greeks. Massacres most likely did take place at Amisos and other villages in Pontus. Yet given the large number of surviving Greeks, especially relative to the small number of Armenian survivors, the massacres apparently were restricted to Pontus, Smyrna, and selected other ‘sensitive’ regions.» 
  85. Magnarella, Paul J. (1998). Anatolia's loom: studies in Turkish culture, society, politics and law. Isis Press. p. 199. ISBN 978-975-428-113-2. «…Greece and Turkey agreed to exchange their “Turkish” and Greek populations. As a consequence, most Christian Greeks living in rural Turkey were exported to Greece. However, the descendants of Anatolian Greeks who had converted to Islam remained, and the cult of Christian saints remained with them.» 
  86. Darke, Diana (2011). Eastern Turkey. Bradt Travel Guides. pp. 164-5. ISBN 978-1-84162-339-9. «Less visited than most parts of Cappadocia, Guzelyurt (‘Beautiful Place’ in Turkish)…The next thing to visit is the Byzantine Church of St Gregory, built in AD385, restored in 1835, and then converted into a mosque when the Greeks left in the exchange of populations in the 1920s. Known today as Buyuk Kilise Camii (Big Church Mosque), the whitewash on the walls is being removed to reveal the original frescoes. A little further into the valley look out for the Sivisli Kilise (Anargyros Church) with square pillars and a dome with fine frescoes, then the Koc (Ram) Church and the Cafarlar (Rivulets) Church. Monastery Valley, as it is known, continues for 4,5 kilómetros (Expresión errónea: falta operando para * ) with fine scenery and panoramas and yet more rock-cut churches, some with interesting architectural features.» 
  87. a b Ammon, Ulrich (2012). Morphologies in Contact. Akademie Verlag. p. 180. ISBN 978-3-05-005701-9. «Even among men, very few people were fully bilingual, as opposed to speakers of Cappadocian, another Asia Minor dialect of Greek origin, where bilingualism was spread among men and women. Cappadocian was spoken in about 32 Greek-speaking settlements in central Asia Minor before 1923, when the exchange of populations between Greece and Turkey took place. Today, there are few remaining native speakers, in certain parts of Northern Greece (in the areas of Karditsa, Volos, Kilkis, Larisa, Thessaloniki, Chalkidiki, Kavala, and Alexadroupoli), all of them descendants from Cappadocian refugees.» 
  88. Oberheu, Susanne. Wadenpohl, Michael (2010). Cappadocia. BoD. p. 8. ISBN 978-3-8391-5661-2. «Right up until the last century, Greeks settled down in Cappadocia and helped shape many villages with their beautifully decorated houses… Cappadocia is not only a World Natural Heritage, but also a World Cultural Heritage, and an unusual openness to the world can be perceived here to the present day.» 
  89. Dawkins, R.M. 1916. Modern Greek in Asia Minor. A study of dialect of Silly, Cappadocia and Pharasa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  90. a b Dawkins, R.M. 1916. Modern Greek in Asia Minor. A study of dialect of Silly, Cappadocia and Pharasa. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  91. Armenian General Benevolent Union (1988). Ararat, Volume 29. Armenian General Benevolent Union of America. p. 43. OCLC 643827160. «Unlike the Karamanlides – Elia Kazan’s people, the Greeks of Kaisaria in the Anatolian interior who, over the centuries became Turkish-speaking – the Kouvoukliotes were always Grecophones who spoke Turkish with a strong Greek accent. As was natural, their dialect included Turkish words like rahat, bahcheh, dondourmas…., and it differed greatly from the Greek spoken in other villages of the province.» 
  92. Sterrett, John Robert Sitlington ; American School of Classical Studies at Athens (1885). Preliminary report of an archæological journey made in Asia Minor during the summer of 1884. Cupples, Upham, and Co. p. 17. OCLC 10889843. «Melegobi is a large and flourishing village, inhabited almost exclusively by Greek-speaking Greeks. The Greeks are numerous all through the western part of Cappadocia, and generally cling to their language with great tenacity, a fact worthy of notice, inasmuch as the Greeks in other parts of Asia Minor speak only Turkish. Instances of Greek-speaking towns are Nigde, Gelvere, Melegobi (Μελοκοπια), and Ortakieui in Soghanli Deressi.» 
  93. a b Stephen K. Batalden; Kathleen Cann; John Dean (2004). Sowing the word: the cultural impact of the British and Foreign Bible Society, 1804-2004. Sheffield Phoenix Press. p. 246. ISBN 978-1-905048-08-3. «Pinkerton had been assured by a number of “worthy” Greeks that “the cruel persecutions of their Mahomedan masters have been the cause of their present state of ignorance, even in regard to their native tongue”. Pinkerton’s interlocutors claimed that there had been a time “when their Turkish masters strictly prohibited the Greeks in Asia Minor even from speaking the Greek language among themselves". Those who disobeyed "this their barbarous command" had had their tongues cut out or had been punished with death. The cutting out of tongues was a commonly held, popular explanation for the abandonment of Greek in favor of Turkish, although there is no evidence that such a practice had ever occurred. “It is”, Pinkerton wrote, “an indisputable fact, that the language of their oppressors has long since almost universally prevailed, and that in a great part of Anatolia even the public worship of the Greeks is now performed in the Turkish tongue”. He appended a list of publications in karamanlidika, five of which he had been able to purchase. He concluded that, in his “humble opinion,”». 
  94. Δέδες, Δ. 1993. Ποιήματα του Μαυλανά Ρουμή. Τα Ιστορικά 10.18–19: 3–22.
  95. Meyer, G. 1895. Die griechischen Verse in Rabâbnâma. Byzantinische Zeitschrift 4: 401–411.
  96. «Archived copy». Archivado desde el original el 5 de agosto de 2012. Consultado el 24 de octubre de 2014. 
  97. http://www.khamush.com/greek/gr.htm
  98. Andrew Dalby, Siren Feasts, p. 109, 201
  99. Ash, John (2006). A Byzantine journey (2nd edición). London: Tauris Parke Paperbacks. ISBN 9781845113070. «Having inherited pastirma from the Byzantines, the Turks took it with them when they conquered Hungary and Romania,». 
  100. Davidson, Alan (2014). The Oxford Companion to Food. Oxford University Press. p. 123. Consultado el 21 de octubre de 2014. «This is certainly true of Byzantine cuisine. Dried meat, a forerunner of the pastirma of modern Turkey, became a delicacy.» 
  101. Underwood, Irina Petrosian ; David (2006). Armenian food : fact, fiction & folklore (2nd edición). Bloomington, Ind.: Yerkir Pub. ISBN 9781411698659. «In Byzantine times, the city was called Caesarea Mazaca. There and throughout Byzantium, the technique called paston was an accepted salt-curing tradition. Turks reintroduced paston as pastirma.» 
  102. Smith, Bruce; Kraig, Andrew (2013). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. Oxford University Press. ed. Consultado el 21 de octubre de 2014. «When the Ottomans settled in Istanbul they also adopted a number of Byzantine dishes, one of which was a form of cured beef called paston and which the Turks called pastirma…It became and remains a specialty of Kayseri in Cappadocia in west central Turkey.» 
  103. Anagnostakis, Ilias (2013). Flavours and Delights. Tastes and Pleasures of Ancient and Byzantine Cuisine. Armos. p. 81. «paston or tarichon…Cured meats were either eaten raw or cooked in pasto-mageireia with bulgur and greens, mainly cabbage.» 
  104. Hazel, John (2001). Who's Who in the Roman World. Routledge. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-415-22410-9. «Archelaus 1. (Cl BC) was a Greek general from Cappadocia who served MITHRIDATES (3) VI, king of Pontus.» 
  105. Fried, Johannes (2015). The Middle Ages. Harvard University Press. p. 10. ISBN 9780674055629. «One of their own number, Bishop Ulfilas, a Goth who originally came from a Greek-Cappadocian family, translated the Holy Gospel into the Gothic vernacular – an enormous undertaking and a work of true genius.» 
  106. Berndt, Dr Guido M (2014). Arianism: Roman Heresy and Barbarian Creed. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 57. ISBN 9781409446590. «Though ulfila may have spoken some Greek in his own family circle, since they were of Greek origin, he is likely to have been able to draw on formal education in both latin and Greek in creating Gothic as a literary language.» 
  107. «Gök Medrese». «The Gok Medrese (Blue Koran school). The Seljuk building was designed for vizier Fahr ed-Din Ali ben Hussein around 1271 by the Greek architect Kalojan.» 
  108. Speros Vryonis (1981). Studies on Byzantium, Seljuks, and Ottomans. p. 282. «Perhaps the best known of these architects was the Greek from Konya, Kaloyan, who worked on the Ilgin Han in 1267-8 and three years later built the Gök Medrese of Sivas.» 
  109. ΚΥΡΙΑΚΑΝΤΩΝΑΚΗΣ, ΙΩΑΝΝΗΣ. «Η ελληνική λογιοσύνη της Κωνσταντινούπολης». Κέντρο Μικρασιατικών Σπουδών. «ΒΑΠΟΡΙΔΗΣ, ΑΒΡΑΑΜ Νίγδη (Φερτέκι, Καππαδοκία), 1855-Κωνσταντινούπολη, 1911 Κρατικός αξιωματούχος, μέλος του Ελεγκτικού Συνεδρίου του Αυτοκρ. Υπουργείου Παιδείας: «επιθεωρητής των τυπογραφείων και ελεγκτής των ελληνικών βιβλίων». Συνέγραψε οθωμανική ιστορία: Επίτομος βιογραφική ιστορία των Σουλτάνων της Οθωμανικής αυτοκρατορίας προς χρήσιν των σχολών δύο τομίδια (πρώτη έκδ.: ΚΠ., Βουτυράς: 1885)». 
  110. Güneş, İhsan (1997). Türk parlamento tarihi: Meşrutiyete geçiş süreci I. ve II. Meşrutiyet, Volume 2. Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi Vakfı. p. 441. ISBN 9789757291152. «YORGAKI EFENDI Yorgaki Efendi, 1856'da Niğde'de dünyaya gelmiştir. Kurtoğlu'nun oğludur. Rum mektebini bitirmiştir. Liva idare meclisi üyesi iken, 25 Kasım 1908'de 38 oy alarak Niğde'den mebus seçilmiştir». 
  111. Ένωσις Σμυρναίων. «Καθαίρεσαν από τις οδοσημάνσεις το όνομα του εθνομάρτυρα Νικολάου Τσουρουκτσόγλου και δεν το αποκατέστησαν μέχρι σήμερα». The Organization of the Association of Smyrneans. Consultado el Sep 12, 2015. 
  112. Henōsis Smyrnaiōn., Henōsis Smyrnaiōn (1964). Mikrasiatika chronika, Volumes 11-12. Tmematos Mikrasiatikon Meleton tēs Henōseos Smyrnaiōn. p. 94. OCLC 6939449. «Χουδαβερδόγλους - Θεόδοτος Σοφοκλής ( 1872 · 1956 ). Γεννήθηκε στή Χαλκηδόνα Κωνσταντινουπόλεως άπό γονείς καταγόμενους άπό τά Τύανα της Καππαδοκίας. " Εγραψε: Βιβλία και άρθρα και μελέτες αναφερόμενες σέ θέματα στενογραφίας, Ιστορικών ερευνών, εκδόσεως Βίων Αγίων κ.λ.π.» 
  113. Werkgroep Coupure, Werkgroep Coupure (2009). De Coupure in Gent. Scheiding en verbinding. Academia Press. p. 304. ISBN 9789038213231. «Leonidas-Kestekidès (°1882 Nikede, met Griekse nationaliteit…(Translated: Leonidas Kestekides (° 1882 Nigde of Greek nationality». 
  114. Boinodiris, Stavros (2010). Andros Odyssey: Liberation: (1900-1940). iUniverse. p. 22. ISBN 9781440193859. «Prodromos Athanasiades-Bodosakis was born in Bohr, Cappadocia. After the exchange ofpopulations he became a Greek industrialist who in 1934 took over Pyrkal, an armament company and one of the oldest defense industries.» 
  115. Rōmanou, Kaitē (2009). Serbian and Greek Art Music: A Patch to Western Music History. Intellect Books. p. 152. ISBN 9781841502786. «Petros Petrides was born in Nigde, Kappadokia, in 1892 and died in Kifissia (Attica) in 1977. A man of vast knowledge on various fields of science and art, who is rightfully placed among the most cultivated and educated Greek composers of the first half of the 20th century;». 
  116. Young, Jeff (2001). Kazan: the master director discusses his films : interviews with Elia Kazan. Newmarket Press. p. 9. ISBN 978-1-55704-446-4. «He was born on September 7, 1909 to Greek parents living in Istanbul. His father was Yiorgos Kazanjioglou, had fled Kayseri, a small village in Anatolia where for five hundred years the Turks had oppressed and brutalized the Armenian and Greek minorities who had lived there even longer.» 

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