Visual kei

movimiento musical japonés

Visual kei (ヴィジュアル系 vijuaru kei?, lit. "estilo visual" o "sistema visual") es un movimiento entre los músicos japoneses[1][2][3]​ que se caracteriza por su uso de variados niveles de maquillaje, peinados elaborados y trajes extravagantes, a menudo junto a una estética andrógina.[4][5][6]​ Algunas fuentes piensan que el visual kei se refiere a un género musical,[7][8]​ con un sonido relacionado con el J-rock, el post-punk y el heavy metal.[5][9][10][11]​ Sin embargo, las bandas visual kei tocan diferentes géneros,[1][12][13][14]​ incluidos los considerados por algunos como no relacionados con el rock como, por ejemplo, la música electrónica, la música pop y otras.[2][5]​ Otras fuentes, incluidos los propios miembros del movimiento, afirman que no es un género musical, y que la moda y la participación en la subcultura asociada es lo que ilustra el uso del término.[4][15][16][17][18]

Visual Kei
Orígenes musicales J-Rock
Post-punk
Heavy metal
Glam rock
Glam metal
Punk rock
Instrumentos comunes Voz, guitarra eléctrica, bajo, batería, teclado
Popularidad Años 1980 y principios de la década de 1990: alta; finales de los años 1990 e inicios de 2000: underground; finales de la década de 2000 hasta la actualidad: en crecimiento.
Subgéneros
Lista de Subgéneros: Angura kei • Eroguro kei • Kote kei • Kurafu kei • Oshare kei

ReferenciasEditar

  1. a b «Visual Kei 101 – Segment 1: the GazettE». MTV. 11 de noviembre de 2013. Archivado desde el original el 12 de noviembre de 2013. Consultado el 13 de noviembre de 2013. «Visual-kei is a uniquely Japanese music scene, but it doesn’t have a specific sound – it’s more of a movement.» 
  2. a b «International Music Feed feature "J Rock"». International Music Feed. Archivado desde el original el 12 de octubre de 2007. Consultado el 31 de julio de 2007. 
  3. Sollee, Kristen (25 de junio de 2006). «Japanese Rock on NPR». The Big Takeover. Consultado el 7 de junio de 2013. «It’s a style of dress, there’s a lot of costuming and make up and it’s uniquely Japanese because it goes back to ancient Japan. Men would often wear women’s clothing...» 
  4. a b Strauss, Neil (18 de junio de 1998). «The Pop Life: End of a Life, End of an Era». The New York Times. Consultado el 31 de julio de 2007. «For visual kei bands, outrageous, usually androgynous looks -- gobs of makeup, hair dyed and sprayed in ways that made Mohawks look conservative, and a small fortune spent on leather and jewellery -- were as important as music (or, in many cases after X, more important than music).; To a certain extent, Hide's death means the end of an era, said Steve McClure, Tokyo bureau chief for Billboard, the music-industry magazine. X were the first generation of visual kei bands, but the novelty has worn off. For the next generation of bands, it's like: That's it. The torch has been passed to us.». 
  5. a b c Reesman, Brian (30 de noviembre de 2006). «Kabuki Rock». Grammy.com. Archivado desde el original el 28 de septiembre de 2007. Consultado el 7 de agosto de 2007. «Josephine Yun, author of the book Jrock, Ink., explains that visual kei originated in the late 1970s and early 1980s as Japan's rock scene began cultivating its own identity. 'It was rock 'n roll, punk rock, glam and metal with a twist — a twist just as angry and rebellious as what came before it — but a poetic one, artistic, with painstaking attention to detail,' Yun explains. She points out that "visual kei" literally translates as "visual style" and spans a wide range of musical genres.; Musically, it can be anything: American rock, British punk, glam, metal, Euro pop, techno, new wave, electronica," explains Yun. "Visually, the influences are diverse as well: traditional Japanese dress, S&M outfits, costumes made of vinyl, leather, lace, plastic...you name it."». | http://www.imf.com/link_player.html?video_id=2283}}
  6. Suzuki, Chako (January 2007). «Pretty Babies: Japan's Undying Gothic Lolita Phenomenon». fashionlines.com. Consultado el 7 de junio de 2013. «Visual Kei is exactly as it sounds: Rock music that incorporates visual effects and elaborate costumes to heighten the experience of the music and the show. Visual Kei started in the 80s and became so popular by the 90s that the nearly all-female fan base started dressing up as their favorite band members (known as 'cosplay') who were often males that wore make-up, crazy hair, and dressed androgynously or as females (usually, the more feminine the rocker, the more fans rush to emulate them).» 
  7. Heinrich, Sally (2006). Key Into Japan. Curriculum Corporation. p. 80. ISBN 1-86366-772-5. 
  8. Yun, Josephine (2005). Jrock, Ink.: A concise report on 40 of the biggest rock acts in Japan. Stone Bridge Press. ISBN 1-880656-95-7. 
  9. Arulvarathan, Subha (15 de abril de 2006). «For those about to J-Rock». The Carillon. Archivado desde el original el 16 de febrero de 2012. Consultado el 7 de junio de 2013. «Visual kei is a branch of Japanese rock. It has its roots as an underground movement in the late ’80s and early ’90s and can be considered pastiche, as it aims to experiment with various established genres such as rock, punk, metal, goth and glam in an attempt to create a wholly new sound.»  |archiveurl= y |urlarchivo= redundantes (ayuda); |archivedate= y |fechaarchivo= redundantes (ayuda)
  10. Minnie, Chi (15 de abril de 2006). «X [Japan]: Reliving the Height of Japan’s Superlative Visual Rock Band». asiaarts.ucla.edu. Archivado desde el original el 2 de octubre de 2013. Consultado el 7 de junio de 2013. «...a fleeting genre known to fans as 'Visual Kei'. Nonetheless, this fusion of metal, punk and gothic aesthetics ignited at least two generations of followers with its shocking visual appeal...; 'Visual Kei' as a genre has more or less expired since the late ‘90s. The music that derived from the scene has transformed and visual bands have generally subdued their appearance.»  |archiveurl= y |urlarchivo= redundantes (ayuda); |archivedate= y |fechaarchivo= redundantes (ayuda)
  11. Gibson, Dave (2 de noviembre de 1998). «Rising Sun». Fort Worth Weekly. Consultado el 10 de septiembre de 2007. «Born of a combination of hard rock and metal, visual rock leans toward a more theatrical presentation emphasizing imagery as much as music. One only needs to watch an X-Japan video to recognize its decadent glam influences, as drummer Yoshiki is often decked out in lace stockings and torn black leather vests. However, the band's androgynous looks can be attributed as much to kayou kyoku (traditional Japanese pop) as to the eccentric costumes of '70s David Bowie and '80s hair bands. It is precisely this hodgepodge of international styles that makes visual rock such an noteworthy new genre.» 
  12. Crawford, Allyson B. (14 de agosto de 2009). «D’espairsRay Explains Visual Kei Movement, Expressing Emotions». Noisecreep. Consultado el 7 de junio de 2014. «Musically speaking, visual kei can do anything.» 
  13. Robson, Daniel (27 de abril de 2007). «Shock-rock act Dir En Grey snub cartoons for cred». The Japan Times. Consultado el 7 de junio de 2013. «...visual-kei, where peacockish fashion far overshadows any definitive sound.; To be honest, when we first started and we were wearing a lot of makeup on stage and stuff, there were a lot of bands doing that at the time in Japan, and people thought it was cool. But not anymore, ha ha. The music was so unique, too — bands like X Japan. At that time, there weren’t any two bands that sounded alike; these days everyone sounds exactly the same». 
  14. «UnsraW interview». JaME-World.com. 27 de abril de 2007. Consultado el 7 de junio de 2013. «[...]Visual kei is not really categorized based on the type of music...» 
  15. Robson, Daniel (20 de noviembre de 2011). «Interview with YOSHIKI in Brazil». JaME-World.com. Consultado el 7 de junio de 2013. «But visual kei is more like a spirit, it’s not a music style or, you know… I think it is a freedom about describing myself, a freedom to express myself, that’s what I believe visual kei is.» 
  16. «Interview with ANGELO». JRock Revolution. 24 de noviembre de 2008. Archivado desde el original el 13 de noviembre de 2013. Consultado el 7 de junio de 2013. «Well I still don’t think “visual kei” is a name for a genre; I see it as a bigger picture, as a part of rock. The visual aspect is something for a band to set themselves apart from others, at least that’s what it was ten years ago. Now it’s more like people are dressing up a certain way because they want to be “visual kei” or look “visual kei.” They are doing it to look like others instead of doing it to look different. This is obviously very different from when we started out more than ten years ago. That’s how I see it.» 
  17. «the Underneath Debuts: Interview Part 1». JRock Revolution. 29 de febrero de 2008. Archivado desde el original el 13 de noviembre de 2013. Consultado el 7 de junio de 2013. «Well, visual kei isn’t a genre of music; it’s used to categorize the bands that show their unique characteristics with their costumes and makeup, though sometimes the music doesn’t necessarily fit the image. Either way, it’s used to describe such bands that show their individualism through their appearance.» 
  18. «Visual Kei 101 – Segment 2: the GazettE». MTV. 12 de noviembre de 2013. Consultado el 13 de noviembre de 2013. «Visual kei isn't a genre of music.»